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Entropy, Volume 24, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 174 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Fifth-generation mobile communication systems (5G) have to accommodate both Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication (URLLC) and enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) services. While eMBB applications support high data rates, URLLC services aim to guarantee low latency and high reliability. eMBB and URLLC services are scheduled on the same frequency band, where their different latency requirements render their coexistence challenging. In this survey, we review coding schemes that simultaneously accommodate URLLC and eMBB transmissions and show that they outperform traditional scheduling approaches. Various communication scenarios are considered, including point-to-point channels, broadcast channels, interference networks, cellular models, and C-RANs. View this paper
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Article
Bayesian Network Model Averaging Classifiers by Subbagging
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 743; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050743 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 483
Abstract
When applied to classification problems, Bayesian networks are often used to infer a class variable when given feature variables. Earlier reports have described that the classification accuracy of Bayesian network structures achieved by maximizing the marginal likelihood (ML) is lower than that achieved [...] Read more.
When applied to classification problems, Bayesian networks are often used to infer a class variable when given feature variables. Earlier reports have described that the classification accuracy of Bayesian network structures achieved by maximizing the marginal likelihood (ML) is lower than that achieved by maximizing the conditional log likelihood (CLL) of a class variable given the feature variables. Nevertheless, because ML has asymptotic consistency, the performance of Bayesian network structures achieved by maximizing ML is not necessarily worse than that achieved by maximizing CLL for large data. However, the error of learning structures by maximizing the ML becomes much larger for small sample sizes. That large error degrades the classification accuracy. As a method to resolve this shortcoming, model averaging has been proposed to marginalize the class variable posterior over all structures. However, the posterior standard error of each structure in the model averaging becomes large as the sample size becomes small; it subsequently degrades the classification accuracy. The main idea of this study is to improve the classification accuracy using subbagging, which is modified bagging using random sampling without replacement, to reduce the posterior standard error of each structure in model averaging. Moreover, to guarantee asymptotic consistency, we use the K-best method with the ML score. The experimentally obtained results demonstrate that our proposed method provides more accurate classification than earlier BNC methods and the other state-of-the-art ensemble methods do. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Machine and Deep Learning)
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Article
An Image Compression Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaos and ZUC Stream Cipher
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 742; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050742 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
In order to improve the transmission efficiency and security of image encryption, we combined a ZUC stream cipher and chaotic compressed sensing to perform image encryption. The parallel compressed sensing method is adopted to ensure the encryption and decryption efficiency. The ZUC stream [...] Read more.
In order to improve the transmission efficiency and security of image encryption, we combined a ZUC stream cipher and chaotic compressed sensing to perform image encryption. The parallel compressed sensing method is adopted to ensure the encryption and decryption efficiency. The ZUC stream cipher is used to sample the one-dimensional chaotic map to reduce the correlation between elements and improve the randomness of the chaotic sequence. The compressed sensing measurement matrix is constructed by using the sampled chaotic sequence to improve the image restoration effect. In order to reduce the block effect after the parallel compressed sensing operation, we also propose a method of a random block of images. Simulation analysis shows that the algorithm demonstrated better encryption and compression performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Imaging and Image Encryption with Entropy)
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Article
Weakly Supervised Building Semantic Segmentation Based on Spot-Seeds and Refinement Process
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 741; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050741 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Automatic building semantic segmentation is the most critical and relevant task in several geospatial applications. Methods based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are mainly used in current building segmentation. The requirement of huge pixel-level labels is a significant obstacle to achieve the semantic [...] Read more.
Automatic building semantic segmentation is the most critical and relevant task in several geospatial applications. Methods based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are mainly used in current building segmentation. The requirement of huge pixel-level labels is a significant obstacle to achieve the semantic segmentation of building by CNNs. In this paper, we propose a novel weakly supervised framework for building segmentation, which generates high-quality pixel-level annotations and optimizes the segmentation network. A superpixel segmentation algorithm can predict a boundary map for training images. Then, Superpixels-CRF built on the superpixel regions is guided by spot seeds to propagate information from spot seeds to unlabeled regions, resulting in high-quality pixel-level annotations. Using these high-quality pixel-level annotations, we can train a more robust segmentation network and predict segmentation maps. To iteratively optimize the segmentation network, the predicted segmentation maps are refined, and the segmentation network are retrained. Comparative experiments demonstrate that the proposed segmentation framework achieves a marked improvement in the building’s segmentation quality while reducing human labeling efforts. Full article
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Article
Block-Iterative Reconstruction from Dynamically Selected Sparse Projection Views Using Extended Power-Divergence Measure
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 740; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050740 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 533
Abstract
Iterative reconstruction of density pixel images from measured projections in computed tomography has attracted considerable attention. The ordered-subsets algorithm is an acceleration scheme that uses subsets of projections in a previously decided order. Several methods have been proposed to improve the convergence rate [...] Read more.
Iterative reconstruction of density pixel images from measured projections in computed tomography has attracted considerable attention. The ordered-subsets algorithm is an acceleration scheme that uses subsets of projections in a previously decided order. Several methods have been proposed to improve the convergence rate by permuting the order of the projections. However, they do not incorporate object information, such as shape, into the selection process. We propose a block-iterative reconstruction from sparse projection views with the dynamic selection of subsets based on an estimating function constructed by an extended power-divergence measure for decreasing the objective function as much as possible. We give a unified proposition for the inequality related to the difference between objective functions caused by one iteration as the theoretical basis of the proposed optimization strategy. Through the theory and numerical experiments, we show that nonuniform and sparse use of projection views leads to a reconstruction of higher-quality images and that an ordered subset is not the most effective for block-iterative reconstruction. The two-parameter class of extended power-divergence measures is the key to estimating an effective decrease in the objective function and plays a significant role in constructing a robust algorithm against noise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Multidisciplinary Applications)
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Article
massiveGST: A Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon Gene-Set Test Tool That Gives Meaning to Gene-Set Enrichment Analysis
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 739; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050739 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Gene-set enrichment analysis is the key methodology for obtaining biological information from transcriptomic space’s statistical result. Since its introduction, Gene-set Enrichment analysis methods have obtained more reliable results and a wider range of application. Great attention has been devoted to global tests, in [...] Read more.
Gene-set enrichment analysis is the key methodology for obtaining biological information from transcriptomic space’s statistical result. Since its introduction, Gene-set Enrichment analysis methods have obtained more reliable results and a wider range of application. Great attention has been devoted to global tests, in contrast to competitive methods that have been largely ignored, although they appear more flexible because they are independent from the source of gene-profiles. We analyzed the properties of the Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon test, a competitive method, and adapted its interpretation in the context of enrichment analysis by introducing a Normalized Enrichment Score that summarize two interpretations: a probability estimate and a location index. Two implementations are presented and compared with relevant literature methods: an R package and an online web tool. Both allow for obtaining tabular and graphical results with attention to reproducible research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Methods and Algorithms for Bioinformatics)
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Article
Sensing Enhancement on Social Networks: The Role of Network Topology
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 738; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050738 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Sensing and processing information from dynamically changing environments is essential for the survival of animal collectives and the functioning of human society. In this context, previous work has shown that communication between networked agents with some preference towards adopting the majority opinion can [...] Read more.
Sensing and processing information from dynamically changing environments is essential for the survival of animal collectives and the functioning of human society. In this context, previous work has shown that communication between networked agents with some preference towards adopting the majority opinion can enhance the quality of error-prone individual sensing from dynamic environments. In this paper, we compare the potential of different types of complex networks for such sensing enhancement. Numerical simulations on complex networks are complemented by a mean-field approach for limited connectivity that captures essential trends in dependencies. Our results show that, whilst bestowing advantages on a small group of agents, degree heterogeneity tends to impede overall sensing enhancement. In contrast, clustering and spatial structure play a more nuanced role depending on overall connectivity. We find that ring graphs exhibit superior enhancement for large connectivity and that random graphs outperform for small connectivity. Further exploring the role of clustering and path lengths in small-world models, we find that sensing enhancement tends to be boosted in the small-world regime. Full article
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Article
Adaptive Fixed-Time Neural Networks Control for Pure-Feedback Non-Affine Nonlinear Systems with State Constraints
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 737; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050737 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 492
Abstract
A new fixed-time adaptive neural network control strategy is designed for pure-feedback non-affine nonlinear systems with state constraints according to the feedback signal of the error system. Based on the adaptive backstepping technology, the Lyapunov function is designed for each subsystem. The neural [...] Read more.
A new fixed-time adaptive neural network control strategy is designed for pure-feedback non-affine nonlinear systems with state constraints according to the feedback signal of the error system. Based on the adaptive backstepping technology, the Lyapunov function is designed for each subsystem. The neural network is used to identify the unknown parameters of the system in a fixed-time, and the designed control strategy makes the output signal of the system track the expected signal in a fixed-time. Through the stability analysis, it is proved that the tracking error converges in a fixed-time, and the design of the upper bound of the setting time of the error system only needs to modify the parameters and adaptive law of the controlled system controller, which does not depend on the initial conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Control Systems with Recent Advances and Applications)
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Article
Task Offloading Strategy Based on Mobile Edge Computing in UAV Network
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 736; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050736 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
When an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) performs tasks such as power patrol inspection, water quality detection, field scientific observation, etc., due to the limitations of the computing capacity and battery power, it cannot complete the tasks efficiently. Therefore, an effective method is to [...] Read more.
When an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) performs tasks such as power patrol inspection, water quality detection, field scientific observation, etc., due to the limitations of the computing capacity and battery power, it cannot complete the tasks efficiently. Therefore, an effective method is to deploy edge servers near the UAV. The UAV can offload some of the computationally intensive and real-time tasks to edge servers. In this paper, a mobile edge computing offloading strategy based on reinforcement learning is proposed. Firstly, the Stackelberg game model is introduced to model the UAV and edge nodes in the network, and the utility function is used to calculate the maximization of offloading revenue. Secondly, as the problem is a mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problem, we introduce the multi-agent deep deterministic policy gradient (MADDPG) to solve it. Finally, the effects of the number of UAVs and the summation of computing resources on the total revenue of the UAVs were simulated through simulation experiments. The experimental results show that compared with other algorithms, the algorithm proposed in this paper can more effectively improve the total benefit of UAVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Applications)
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Article
Information Fragmentation, Encryption and Information Flow in Complex Biological Networks
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 735; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050735 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Assessing where and how information is stored in biological networks (such as neuronal and genetic networks) is a central task both in neuroscience and in molecular genetics, but most available tools focus on the network’s structure as opposed to its function. Here, we [...] Read more.
Assessing where and how information is stored in biological networks (such as neuronal and genetic networks) is a central task both in neuroscience and in molecular genetics, but most available tools focus on the network’s structure as opposed to its function. Here, we introduce a new information-theoretic tool—information fragmentation analysis—that, given full phenotypic data, allows us to localize information in complex networks, determine how fragmented (across multiple nodes of the network) the information is, and assess the level of encryption of that information. Using information fragmentation matrices we can also create information flow graphs that illustrate how information propagates through these networks. We illustrate the use of this tool by analyzing how artificial brains that evolved in silico solve particular tasks, and show how information fragmentation analysis provides deeper insights into how these brains process information and “think”. The measures of information fragmentation and encryption that result from our methods also quantify complexity of information processing in these networks and how this processing complexity differs between primary exposure to sensory data (early in the lifetime) and later routine processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foundations of Biological Computation)
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Article
Optimal Control of Background-Based Uncertain Systems with Applications in DC Pension Plan
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 734; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050734 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 397
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a new optimal control model for uncertain systems with jump. In the model, the background-state variables are incorporated, where the background-state variables are governed by an uncertain differential equation. Meanwhile, the state variables are governed by another uncertain [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a new optimal control model for uncertain systems with jump. In the model, the background-state variables are incorporated, where the background-state variables are governed by an uncertain differential equation. Meanwhile, the state variables are governed by another uncertain differential equation with jump, in which both the background-state variables and the control variables are involved. Under the optimistic value criterion, using uncertain dynamic programming method, we establish the principle and the equation of optimality. As an application, the optimal investment strategy and optimal payment rate for DC pension plans are given, where the corresponding background-state variables represent the salary process. This application in DC pension plans illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed model. Full article
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Article
Finite-Time Pinning Synchronization Control for T-S Fuzzy Discrete Complex Networks with Time-Varying Delays via Adaptive Event-Triggered Approach
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 733; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050733 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 473
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the adaptive event-triggered finite-time pinning synchronization control problem for T-S fuzzy discrete complex networks (TSFDCNs) with time-varying delays. In order to accurately describe discrete dynamical behaviors, we build a general model of discrete complex networks via T-S fuzzy [...] Read more.
This paper is concerned with the adaptive event-triggered finite-time pinning synchronization control problem for T-S fuzzy discrete complex networks (TSFDCNs) with time-varying delays. In order to accurately describe discrete dynamical behaviors, we build a general model of discrete complex networks via T-S fuzzy rules, which extends a continuous-time model in existing results. Based on an adaptive threshold and measurement errors, a discrete adaptive event-triggered approach (AETA) is introduced to govern signal transmission. With the hope of improving the resource utilization and reducing the update frequency, an event-based fuzzy pinning feedback control strategy is designed to control a small fraction of network nodes. Furthermore, by new Lyapunov–Krasovskii functionals and the finite-time analysis method, sufficient criteria are provided to guarantee the finite-time bounded stability of the closed-loop error system. Under an optimization condition and linear matrix inequality (LMI) constraints, the desired controller parameters with respect to minimum finite time are derived. Finally, several numerical examples are conducted to show the effectiveness of obtained theoretical results. For the same system, the average triggering rate of AETA is significantly lower than existing event-triggered mechanisms and the convergence rate of synchronization errors is also superior to other control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics of Complex Networks)
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Article
Ecological Function Analysis and Optimization of a Recompression S-CO2 Cycle for Gas Turbine Waste Heat Recovery
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 732; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050732 - 21 May 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
In this paper, a recompression S-CO2 Brayton cycle model that considers the finite-temperature difference heat transfer between the heat source and the working fluid, irreversible compression, expansion, and other irreversibility is established. First, the ecological function is analyzed. Then the mass flow [...] Read more.
In this paper, a recompression S-CO2 Brayton cycle model that considers the finite-temperature difference heat transfer between the heat source and the working fluid, irreversible compression, expansion, and other irreversibility is established. First, the ecological function is analyzed. Then the mass flow rate, pressure ratio, diversion coefficient, and the heat conductance distribution ratios (HCDRs) of four heat exchangers (HEXs) are chosen as variables to optimize cycle performance, and the problem of long optimization time is solved by building a neural network prediction model. The results show that when the mass flow rate is small, the pressure ratio, the HCDRs of heater, and high temperature regenerator are the main influencing factors of the ecological function; when the mass flow rate is large, the influences of the re-compressor, the HCDRs of low temperature regenerator, and cooler on the ecological function increase; reasonable adjustment of the HCDRs of four HEXs can make the cycle performance better, but mass flow rate plays a more important role; the ecological function can be increased by 12.13%, 31.52%, 52.2%, 93.26%, and 96.99% compared with the initial design point after one-, two-, three-, four- and five-time optimizations, respectively. Full article
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Article
Robust Variable-Step Perturb-and-Observe Sliding Mode Controller for Grid-Connected Wind-Energy-Conversion Systems
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 731; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050731 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 613
Abstract
In order to extract efficient power generation, a wind turbine (WT) system requires an accurate maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique. Therefore, a novel robust variable-step perturb-and-observe (RVS-P&O) algorithm was developed for the machine-side converter (MSC). The control strategy was applied on a [...] Read more.
In order to extract efficient power generation, a wind turbine (WT) system requires an accurate maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique. Therefore, a novel robust variable-step perturb-and-observe (RVS-P&O) algorithm was developed for the machine-side converter (MSC). The control strategy was applied on a WT based permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) to overcome the downsides of the currently published P&O MPPT methods. Particularly, two main points were involved. Firstly, a systematic step-size selection on the basis of power and speed measurement normalization was proposed; secondly, to obtain acceptable robustness for high and long wind-speed variations, a new correction to calculate the power variation was carried out. The grid-side converter (GSC) was controlled using a second-order sliding mode controller (SOSMC) with an adaptive-gain super-twisting algorithm (STA) to realize the high-quality seamless setting of power injected into the grid, a satisfactory power factor correction, a high harmonic performance of the AC source, and removal of the chatter effect compared to the traditional first-order sliding mode controller (FOSMC). Simulation results showed the superiority of the suggested RVS-P&O over the competing based P&O techniques. The RVS-P&O offered the WT an efficiency of 99.35%, which was an increase of 3.82% over the variable-step P&O algorithm. Indeed, the settling time was remarkably enhanced; it was 0.00794 s, which was better than for LS-P&O (0.0841 s), SS-P&O (0.1617 s), and VS-P&O (0.2224 s). Therefore, in terms of energy efficiency, as well as transient and steady-state response performances under various operating conditions, the RVS-P&O algorithm could be an accurate candidate for MPP online operation tracking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonlinear Control Systems with Recent Advances and Applications)
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Article
An Extensive Assessment of Network Embedding in PPI Network Alignment
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 730; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050730 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Network alignment is a fundamental task in network analysis. In the biological field, where the protein–protein interaction (PPI) is represented as a graph, network alignment allowed the discovery of underlying biological knowledge such as conserved evolutionary pathways and functionally conserved proteins throughout different [...] Read more.
Network alignment is a fundamental task in network analysis. In the biological field, where the protein–protein interaction (PPI) is represented as a graph, network alignment allowed the discovery of underlying biological knowledge such as conserved evolutionary pathways and functionally conserved proteins throughout different species. A recent trend in network science concerns network embedding, i.e., the modelling of nodes in a network as a low-dimensional feature vector. In this survey, we present an overview of current PPI network embedding alignment methods, a comparison among them, and a comparison to classical PPI network alignment algorithms. The results of this comparison highlight that: (i) only five network embeddings for network alignment algorithms have been applied in the biological context, whereas the literature presents several classical network alignment algorithms; (ii) there is a need for developing an evaluation framework that may enable a unified comparison between different algorithms; (iii) the majority of the proposed algorithms perform network embedding through matrix factorization-based techniques; (iv) three out of five algorithms leverage external biological resources, while the remaining two are designed for domain agnostic network alignment and tested on PPI networks; (v) two algorithms out of three are stated to perform multi-network alignment, while the remaining perform pairwise network alignment. Full article
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Article
Functional Dynamics of Substrate Recognition in TEM Beta-Lactamase
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 729; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050729 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 480
Abstract
The beta-lactamase enzyme provides effective resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics due to substrate recognition controlled by point mutations. Recently, extended-spectrum and inhibitor-resistant mutants have become a global health problem. Here, the functional dynamics that control substrate recognition in TEM beta-lactamase are investigated using all-atom [...] Read more.
The beta-lactamase enzyme provides effective resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics due to substrate recognition controlled by point mutations. Recently, extended-spectrum and inhibitor-resistant mutants have become a global health problem. Here, the functional dynamics that control substrate recognition in TEM beta-lactamase are investigated using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Comparisons are made between wild-type TEM-1 and TEM-2 and the extended-spectrum mutants TEM-10 and TEM-52, both in apo form and in complex with four different antibiotics (ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime). Dynamic allostery is predicted based on a quasi-harmonic normal mode analysis using a perturbation scan. An allosteric mechanism known to inhibit enzymatic function in TEM beta-lactamase is identified, along with other allosteric binding targets. Mechanisms for substrate recognition are elucidated using multivariate comparative analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories to identify changes in dynamics resulting from point mutations and ligand binding, and the conserved dynamics, which are functionally important, are extracted as well. The results suggest that the H10-H11 loop (residues 214-221) is a secondary anchor for larger extended spectrum ligands, while the H9-H10 loop (residues 194-202) is distal from the active site and stabilizes the protein against structural changes. These secondary non-catalytically-active loops offer attractive targets for novel noncompetitive inhibitors of TEM beta-lactamase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Biomolecules)
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Article
Quantum Estimates for Different Type Intequalities through Generalized Convexity
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 728; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050728 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 442
Abstract
This article estimates several integral inequalities involving (hm)-convexity via the quantum calculus, through which Important integral inequalities including Simpson-like, midpoint-like, averaged midpoint-trapezoid-like and trapezoid-like are extended. We generalized some quantum integral inequalities for q-differentiable [...] Read more.
This article estimates several integral inequalities involving (hm)-convexity via the quantum calculus, through which Important integral inequalities including Simpson-like, midpoint-like, averaged midpoint-trapezoid-like and trapezoid-like are extended. We generalized some quantum integral inequalities for q-differentiable (hm)-convexity. Our results could serve as the refinement and the unification of some classical results existing in the literature by taking the limit q1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Numerical Methods for Differential Equations)
Article
A Hybrid Scheme of MCS Selection and Spectrum Allocation for URLLC Traffic under Delay and Reliability Constraints
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 727; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050727 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 471
Abstract
The Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication (URLLC) is expected to be an important feature of 5G and beyond networks. Supporting URLLC in a resource-efficient manner demands optimal Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) selection and spectrum allocation. This paper presents a study on MCS selection and [...] Read more.
The Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication (URLLC) is expected to be an important feature of 5G and beyond networks. Supporting URLLC in a resource-efficient manner demands optimal Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) selection and spectrum allocation. This paper presents a study on MCS selection and spectrum allocation to support URLLC. The essential idea is to establish an analytical connection between the delay and reliability requirements of URLLC data transmission and the underlying MCS selection and spectrum allocation. In particular, the connection factors in fundamental aspects of wireless data communication include channel quality, coding and modulation, spectrum allocation and data traffic characteristics. With this connection, MCS selection and spectrum allocation can be efficiently performed based on the delay and reliability requirements of URLLC. Theoretical results in the scenario of a 5G New Radio system are presented, where the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) thresholds for adaptive MCS selection, data-transmission rate and delay, as well as spectrum allocation under different configurations, including data duplication, are discussed. Simulation results are also obtained and compared with the theoretical results, which validate the analysis and its efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Information and Coding Theory)
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Article
Information Dynamics of Electric Field Intensity before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 726; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050726 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 535
Abstract
This work investigates the temporal statistical structure of time series of electric field (EF) intensity recorded with the aim of exploring the dynamical patterns associated with periods with different human activity in urban areas. The analyzed time series were obtained from a sensor [...] Read more.
This work investigates the temporal statistical structure of time series of electric field (EF) intensity recorded with the aim of exploring the dynamical patterns associated with periods with different human activity in urban areas. The analyzed time series were obtained from a sensor of the EMF RATEL monitoring system installed in the campus area of the University of Novi Sad, Serbia. The sensor performs wideband cumulative EF intensity monitoring of all active commercial EF sources, thus including those linked to human utilization of wireless communication systems. Monitoring was performed continuously during the years 2019 and 2020, allowing us to investigate the effects on the patterns of EF intensity of varying conditions of human mobility, including regular teaching and exam activity within the campus, as well as limitations to mobility related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Time series analysis was performed using both simple statistics (mean and variance) and combining the information-theoretic measure of information storage (IS) with the method of surrogate data to quantify the regularity of EF dynamic patterns and detect the presence of nonlinear dynamics. Moreover, to assess the possible coexistence of dynamic behaviors across multiple temporal scales, IS analysis was performed over consecutive observation windows lasting one day, week, month, and year, respectively coarse grained at time scales of 6 min, 30 min, 2 h, and 1 day. Our results document that the EF intensity patterns of variability are modulated by the movement of people at daily, weekly, and monthly scales, and are blunted during periods of restricted mobility related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Mobility restrictions also affected significantly the regularity of the EF intensity time series, resulting in lower values of IS observed simultaneously with a loss of nonlinear dynamics. Thus, our analysis can be useful to investigate changes in the global patterns of human mobility both during pandemics or other types of events, and from this perspective may serve to implement strategies for safety assessment and for optimizing the design of networks of EF sensors. Full article
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Article
More Causes Less Effect: Destructive Interference in Decision Making
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 725; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050725 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 455
Abstract
We present a new experiment demonstrating destructive interference in customers’ estimates of conditional probabilities of product failure. We take the perspective of a manufacturer of consumer products and consider two situations of cause and effect. Whereas, individually, the effect of the causes is [...] Read more.
We present a new experiment demonstrating destructive interference in customers’ estimates of conditional probabilities of product failure. We take the perspective of a manufacturer of consumer products and consider two situations of cause and effect. Whereas, individually, the effect of the causes is similar, it is observed that when combined, the two causes produce the opposite effect. Such negative interference of two or more product features may be exploited for better modeling of the cognitive processes taking place in customers’ minds. Doing so can enhance the likelihood that a manufacturer will be able to design a better product, or a feature within it. Quantum probability has been used to explain some commonly observed “non-classical” effects, such as the disjunction effect, question order effect, violation of the sure-thing principle, and the Machina and Ellsberg paradoxes. In this work, we present results from a survey on the impact of multiple observed symptoms on the drivability of a vehicle. The symptoms are assumed to be conditionally independent. We demonstrate that the response statistics cannot be directly explained using classical probability, but quantum formulation easily models it, as it allows for both positive and negative “interference” between events. Since quantum formalism also accounts for classical probability’s predictions, it serves as a richer paradigm for modeling decision making behavior in engineering design and behavioral economics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision-Making II)
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Editorial
Entropy 2022 Best Paper Award
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 724; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050724 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 466
Abstract
On behalf of the Editor-in-Chief, Prof [...] Full article
Article
Joint Optimization of Control Strategy and Energy Consumption for Energy Harvesting WSAN
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 723; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050723 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 380
Abstract
With the rapid development of wireless sensor technology, recent progress in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) with energy harvesting provide the possibility for various real-time applications. Meanwhile, extensive research activities are carried out in the fields of efficient energy allocation and control [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of wireless sensor technology, recent progress in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) with energy harvesting provide the possibility for various real-time applications. Meanwhile, extensive research activities are carried out in the fields of efficient energy allocation and control strategy design. However, the joint design considering physical plant control, energy harvesting, and consumption is rarely concerned in existing works. In this paper, in order to enhance system control stability and promote quality of service for the WSAN energy efficiency, a novel three-step joint optimization algorithm is proposed through control strategy and energy management analysis. First, the optimal sampling interval can be obtained based on energy harvesting, consumption, and remaining conditions. Then, the control gain for each sampling interval is derived by using a backward iteration. Finally, the optimal control strategy is determined as a linear function of the current plant states and previous control strategies. The application of UAV formation flight system demonstrates that better system performance and control stability can be achieved by the proposed joint optimization design for all poor, sufficient, and general energy harvesting scenarios. Full article
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Article
E-Learning Performance Prediction: Mining the Feature Space of Effective Learning Behavior
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 722; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050722 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Learning analysis provides a new opportunity for the development of online education, and has received extensive attention from scholars at home and abroad. How to use data and models to predict learners’ academic success or failure and give teaching feedback in a timely [...] Read more.
Learning analysis provides a new opportunity for the development of online education, and has received extensive attention from scholars at home and abroad. How to use data and models to predict learners’ academic success or failure and give teaching feedback in a timely manner is a core problem in the field of learning analytics. At present, many scholars use key learning behaviors to improve the prediction effect by exploring the implicit relationship between learning behavior data and grades. At the same time, it is very important to explore the association between categories and prediction effects in learning behavior classification. This paper proposes a self-adaptive feature fusion strategy based on learning behavior classification, aiming to mine the effective E-learning behavior feature space and further improve the performance of the learning performance prediction model. First, a behavior classification model (E-learning Behavior Classification Model, EBC Model) based on interaction objects and learning process is constructed; second, the feature space is preliminarily reduced by entropy weight method and variance filtering method; finally, combined with EBC Model and a self-adaptive feature fusion strategy to build a learning performance predictor. The experiment uses the British Open University Learning Analysis Dataset (OULAD). Through the experimental analysis, an effective feature space is obtained, that is, the basic interactive behavior (BI) and knowledge interaction behavior (KI) of learning behavior category has the strongest correlation with learning performance.And it is proved that the self-adaptive feature fusion strategy proposed in this paper can effectively improve the performance of the learning performance predictor, and the performance index of accuracy(ACC), F1-score(F1) and kappa(K) reach 98.44%, 0.9893, 0.9600. This study constructs E-learning performance predictors and mines the effective feature space from a new perspective, and provides some auxiliary references for online learners and managers. Full article
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Review
Some Recent Advances in Energetic Variational Approaches
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 721; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050721 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 404
Abstract
In this paper, we summarize some recent advances related to the energetic variational approach (EnVarA), a general variational framework of building thermodynamically consistent models for complex fluids, by some examples. Particular focus will be placed on how to model systems involving chemo-mechanical couplings [...] Read more.
In this paper, we summarize some recent advances related to the energetic variational approach (EnVarA), a general variational framework of building thermodynamically consistent models for complex fluids, by some examples. Particular focus will be placed on how to model systems involving chemo-mechanical couplings and non-isothermal effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulation of Complex Fluid Flows)
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Article
Bionic Covert Underwater Acoustic Communication Based on Time–Frequency Contour of Bottlenose Dolphin Whistle
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 720; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050720 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 407
Abstract
In order to meet the requirements of communication security and concealment, as well as to protect marine life, bionic covert communication has become a hot research topic for underwater acoustic communication (UAC). In this paper, we propose a bionic covert UAC (BC-UAC) method [...] Read more.
In order to meet the requirements of communication security and concealment, as well as to protect marine life, bionic covert communication has become a hot research topic for underwater acoustic communication (UAC). In this paper, we propose a bionic covert UAC (BC-UAC) method based on the time–frequency contour (TFC) of the bottlenose dolphin whistle, which can overcome the safety problem of traditional low signal–noise ratio (SNR) covert communication and make the detected communication signal be excluded as marine biological noise. In the proposed BC-UAC method, the TFC of the bottlenose dolphin whistle is segmented to improve the transmission rate. Two BC-UAC schemes based on the segmented TFC of the whistle, the BC-UAC scheme using the whistle signal with time-delay (BC-UAC-TD) and the BC-UAC scheme using the whistle signal with frequency-shift (BC-UAC-FS), are addressed. The original whistle signal is used as a synchronization signal. Moreover, the virtual time reversal mirror (VTRM) technique is adopted to equalize the channel for mitigating the multipath effect. The performance of the proposed BC-UAC method, in terms of the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) and bit error rate (BER), is evaluated under simulated and measured underwater channels. Numerical results show that the proposed BC-UAC method performs well on covertness and reliability. Furthermore, the covertness of the bionic modulated signal in BC-UAC-TD is better than that of BC-UAC-FS, although the reliability of BC-UAC-FS is better than that of BC-UAC-TD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Information Theory in Acoustics II)
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Article
Fractional Stochastic Differential Equation Approach for Spreading of Diseases
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 719; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050719 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 491
Abstract
The nonlinear fractional stochastic differential equation approach with Hurst parameter H within interval H(0,1) to study the time evolution of the number of those infected by the coronavirus in countries where the number of cases is large [...] Read more.
The nonlinear fractional stochastic differential equation approach with Hurst parameter H within interval H(0,1) to study the time evolution of the number of those infected by the coronavirus in countries where the number of cases is large as Brazil is studied. The rises and falls of novel cases daily or the fluctuations in the official data are treated as a random term in the stochastic differential equation for the fractional Brownian motion. The projection of novel cases in the future is treated as quadratic mean deviation in the official data of novel cases daily since the beginning of the pandemic up to the present. Moreover, the rescaled range analysis (RS) is employed to determine the Hurst index for the time series of novel cases and some statistical tests are performed with the aim to determine the shape of the probability density of novel cases in the future. Full article
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Article
Interpolating Strange Attractors via Fractional Brownian Bridges
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 718; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050718 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 378
Abstract
We present a novel method for interpolating univariate time series data. The proposed method combines multi-point fractional Brownian bridges, a genetic algorithm, and Takens’ theorem for reconstructing a phase space from univariate time series data. The basic idea is to first generate a [...] Read more.
We present a novel method for interpolating univariate time series data. The proposed method combines multi-point fractional Brownian bridges, a genetic algorithm, and Takens’ theorem for reconstructing a phase space from univariate time series data. The basic idea is to first generate a population of different stochastically-interpolated time series data, and secondly, to use a genetic algorithm to find the pieces in the population which generate the smoothest reconstructed phase space trajectory. A smooth trajectory curve is hereby found to have a low variance of second derivatives along the curve. For simplicity, we refer to the developed method as PhaSpaSto-interpolation, which is an abbreviation for phase-space-trajectory-smoothing stochastic interpolation. The proposed approach is tested and validated with a univariate time series of the Lorenz system, five non-model data sets and compared to a cubic spline interpolation and a linear interpolation. We find that the criterion for smoothness guarantees low errors on known model and non-model data. Finally, we interpolate the discussed non-model data sets, and show the corresponding improved phase space portraits. The proposed method is useful for interpolating low-sampled time series data sets for, e.g., machine learning, regression analysis, or time series prediction approaches. Further, the results suggest that the variance of second derivatives along a given phase space trajectory is a valuable tool for phase space analysis of non-model time series data, and we expect it to be useful for future research. Full article
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Article
A Thermodynamically Consistent, Microscopically-Based, Model of the Rheology of Aggregating Particles Suspensions
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 717; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050717 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 502
Abstract
In this work, we outline the development of a thermodynamically consistent microscopic model for a suspension of aggregating particles under arbitrary, inertia-less deformation. As a proof-of-concept, we show how the combination of a simplified population-balance-based description of the aggregating particle microstructure along with [...] Read more.
In this work, we outline the development of a thermodynamically consistent microscopic model for a suspension of aggregating particles under arbitrary, inertia-less deformation. As a proof-of-concept, we show how the combination of a simplified population-balance-based description of the aggregating particle microstructure along with the use of the single-generator bracket description of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, which leads naturally to the formulation of the model equations. Notable elements of the model are a lognormal distribution for the aggregate size population, a population balance-based model of the aggregation and breakup processes and a conformation tensor-based viscoelastic description of the elastic network of the particle aggregates. The resulting example model is evaluated in steady and transient shear forces and elongational flows and shown to offer predictions that are consistent with observed rheological behavior of typical systems of aggregating particles. Additionally, an expression for the total entropy production is also provided that allows one to judge the thermodynamic consistency and to evaluate the importance of the various dissipative phenomena involved in given flow processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulation of Complex Fluid Flows)
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Article
Derivation of Two-Fluid Model Based on Onsager Principle
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 716; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050716 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 410
Abstract
Using the Onsager variational principle, we study the dynamic coupling between the stress and the composition in a polymer solution. In the original derivation of the two-fluid model of Doi and Onuki the polymer stress was introduced a priori; therefore, a constitutive [...] Read more.
Using the Onsager variational principle, we study the dynamic coupling between the stress and the composition in a polymer solution. In the original derivation of the two-fluid model of Doi and Onuki the polymer stress was introduced a priori; therefore, a constitutive equation is required to close the equations. Based on our previous study of viscoelastic fluids with homogeneous composition, we start with a dumbbell model for the polymer, and derive all dynamic equations using the Onsager variational principle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Simulation of Complex Fluid Flows)
Article
Measured Composite Collision Models: Quantum Trajectory Purities and Channel Divisibility
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 715; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050715 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 429
Abstract
We investigate a composite quantum collision model with measurements on the memory part, which effectively probe the system. The framework allows us to adjust the measurement strength, thereby tuning the dynamical map of the system. For a two-qubit setup with a symmetric and [...] Read more.
We investigate a composite quantum collision model with measurements on the memory part, which effectively probe the system. The framework allows us to adjust the measurement strength, thereby tuning the dynamical map of the system. For a two-qubit setup with a symmetric and informationally complete measurement on the memory, we study the divisibility of the resulting dynamics in dependence of the measurement strength. The measurements give rise to quantum trajectories of the system and we show that the average asymptotic purity depends on the specific form of the measurement. With the help of numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the different performance of the measurements is generic and holds for almost all interaction gates between the system and the memory in the composite collision model. The discrete model is then extended to a time-continuous limit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Collision Models)
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Article
Privacy: An Axiomatic Approach
Entropy 2022, 24(5), 714; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/e24050714 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 503
Abstract
The increasing prevalence of large-scale data collection in modern society represents a potential threat to individual privacy. Addressing this threat, for example through privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), requires a rigorous definition of what exactly is being protected, that is, of privacy itself. In this [...] Read more.
The increasing prevalence of large-scale data collection in modern society represents a potential threat to individual privacy. Addressing this threat, for example through privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs), requires a rigorous definition of what exactly is being protected, that is, of privacy itself. In this work, we formulate an axiomatic definition of privacy based on quantifiable and irreducible information flows. Our definition synthesizes prior work from the domain of social science with a contemporary understanding of PETs such as differential privacy (DP). Our work highlights the fact that the inevitable difficulties of protecting privacy in practice are fundamentally information-theoretic. Moreover, it enables quantitative reasoning about PETs based on what they are protecting, thus fostering objective policy discourse about their societal implementation. Full article
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