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Article

Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum

1
School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of TCM Foundation and New Drug Research, School of Chinese Material Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 10 April 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, which is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine for complementary cancer therapy. In the present study, systematic isolation, and in silico pharmacological prediction are implemented to discover potential anti-cancer active GTs from G. lucidum. Nineteen GTs, three steroids, one cerebroside, and one thymidine were isolated from G. lucidum. Six GTs were first isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, including 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid methyl ester (1), 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (2), 3β,7β,15α,28-tetrahydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (3), ganotropic acid (4), 26-nor-11,23-dioxo-5α-lanost-8-en-3β,7β,15α,25-tetrol (5) and (3β,7α)-dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien- 11-one (6). (4E,8E)-N-d-2′-hydroxypalmitoyl-l-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-spingodienine (7), and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6α-triol (8) were first reported from the genus Ganodema. By using reverse pharmacophoric profiling of the six GTs, thirty potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets were identified and utilized to construct their ingredient-target interaction network. Then nineteen high frequency targets of GTs were selected from thirty potential targets to construct a protein interaction network (PIN). In order to cluster the pharmacological activity of GTs, twelve function modules were identified by molecular complex detection (MCODE) and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The results indicated that anti-cancer effect of GTs might be related to histone acetylation and interphase of mitotic cell cycle by regulating general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2), respectively. This research mode of extraction, isolation, pharmacological prediction, and PIN analysis might be beneficial to rapidly predict and discover pharmacological activities of novel compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ganoderma lucidum; lanostanoid triterpene; pharmacophore; protein interaction network; anti-cancer; reverse target identification Ganoderma lucidum; lanostanoid triterpene; pharmacophore; protein interaction network; anti-cancer; reverse target identification
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shao, Y.; Qiao, L.; Wu, L.; Sun, X.; Zhu, D.; Yang, G.; Zhang, X.; Mao, X.; Chen, W.; Liang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L. Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum. Molecules 2016, 21, 678. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules21050678

AMA Style

Shao Y, Qiao L, Wu L, Sun X, Zhu D, Yang G, Zhang X, Mao X, Chen W, Liang W, Zhang Y, Zhang L. Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum. Molecules. 2016; 21(5):678. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules21050678

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shao, Yanyan, Liansheng Qiao, Lingfang Wu, Xuefei Sun, Dan Zhu, Guanghui Yang, Xiaoxue Zhang, Xin Mao, Wenjing Chen, Wenyi Liang, Yanling Zhang, and Lanzhen Zhang. 2016. "Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum" Molecules 21, no. 5: 678. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules21050678

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