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Molecules, Volume 25, Issue 21 (November-1 2020) – 351 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The development of novel approaches for the functionalization of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a burgeoning field of research. We hypothesize that polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) compounds are an attractive alternative to develop customizable scaffolds to functionalize photosensitizer agents in a broad variety of groups. In this paper, we investigate the effects of different functional groups on the silsesquioxane cage of the POSS-photosensitizer system for PDT. View this paper.
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Article
In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Arthritic Synoviocytes of A. brachypoda Root Extracts and Its Unusual Dimeric Flavonoids
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5219; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215219 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Arrabidaea brachypoda is a plant commonly used for the treatment of kidney stones, arthritis and pain in traditional Brazilian medicine. Different in vitro and in vivo activities, ranging from antinociceptive to anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, have been reported for the dichloromethane root extract [...] Read more.
Arrabidaea brachypoda is a plant commonly used for the treatment of kidney stones, arthritis and pain in traditional Brazilian medicine. Different in vitro and in vivo activities, ranging from antinociceptive to anti-Trypanosoma cruzi, have been reported for the dichloromethane root extract of Arrabidaea brachypoda (DCMAB) and isolated compounds. This work aimed to assess the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in arthritic synoviocytes of the DCMAB, the hydroethanolic extract (HEAB) and three dimeric flavonoids isolated from the DCMAB. These compounds, brachydin A (1), B (2) and C (3), were isolated both by medium pressure liquid and high-speed counter current chromatography. Their quantification was performed by mass spectrometry on both DCMAB and HEAB. IL-1β activated human fibroblast-like synoviocytes were incubated with both extracts and isolated compounds to determine the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). DCMAB inhibited 30% of IL-6 release at 25 µg/mL, when compared with controls while HEAB was inactive. IC50 values determined for 2 and 3 were 3-fold higher than 1. The DCMAB activity seems to be linked to higher proportions of compounds 2 and 3 in this extract. These observations could thus explain the traditional use of A. brachypoda roots in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Review
An Overview of the Role of Adipokines in Cardiometabolic Diseases
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5218; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215218 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1512
Abstract
Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) leads to an increase in morbidity, mortality, and a shortening of life span. The changes in heart structure and function as well as metabolic profile are caused by obese people, including those free [...] Read more.
Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) leads to an increase in morbidity, mortality, and a shortening of life span. The changes in heart structure and function as well as metabolic profile are caused by obese people, including those free of metabolic disorders. Obesity alters heart function structure and affects lipid and glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and increase inflammatory cytokines. Adipokines, specific cytokines of adipocytes, are involved in the progression of obesity and the associated co-morbidities. In the current study, we review the scientific evidence on the effects of obesity on CVDs, focusing on the changes in adipokines. Several adipokines have anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects comprising omentin, apelin, adiponectin, and secreted frizzled-related protein (Sfrp-5). Other adipokines have pro-inflammatory impacts on the cardiovascular system and obesity including leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), retinol-binding protein4 (RBP-4), visfatin, resistin, and osteopontin. We found that obesity is associated with multiple CVDs, but can only occur in unhealthy metabolic patients. However, more studies should be designed to clarify the association between obesity, adipokine changes, and the occurrence of CVDs. Full article
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Editorial
Biomass: A Renewable Source of Fuels, Chemicals and Carbon Materials
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5217; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215217 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 640
Abstract
Fossil fuels have been long used as a source of carbon for synthetizing the fuels, chemicals, and carbon-based materials we use on a daily basis [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Chemistry)
Article
Proteome Analysis of Human Natural Killer Cell Derived Extracellular Vesicles for Identification of Anticancer Effectors
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5216; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215216 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1004
Abstract
Cancer immunotherapy is a clinically validated therapeutic modality for cancer and has been rapidly advancing in recent years. Adoptive transfer of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as a viable method of controlling the immune system [...] Read more.
Cancer immunotherapy is a clinically validated therapeutic modality for cancer and has been rapidly advancing in recent years. Adoptive transfer of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as a viable method of controlling the immune system against cancer. Recent evidence indicates that even immune-cell-released vesicles such as NK-cell-derived exosomes also exert anticancer effect. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, the anticancer potential of isolated extracellular vesicles (EVs) from expanded and activated NK-cell-enriched lymphocytes (NKLs) prepared by house-developed protocol was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, isolated EVs were characterized by using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteome and network analysis, and functional study using identified factors was performed. Our data indicated that the EVs from expanded and active NKLs had anticancer properties, and a number of molecules, such as Fas ligand, TRAIL, NKG2D, β-actin, and fibrinogen, were identified as effector candidates based on the proteome analysis and functional study. The results of the present study suggest the possibility of NK-cell-derived EVs as a viable immunotherapeutic strategy for cancer. Full article
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Article
Vibrational Properties and DFT Calculations of Perovskite-Type Methylhydrazinium Manganese Hypophosphite
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215215 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 996
Abstract
Recently discovered hybrid perovskites based on hypophosphite ligands are a promising class of compounds exhibiting unusual structural properties and providing opportunities for construction of novel functional materials. Here, we report for the first time the detailed studies of phonon properties of manganese hypophosphite [...] Read more.
Recently discovered hybrid perovskites based on hypophosphite ligands are a promising class of compounds exhibiting unusual structural properties and providing opportunities for construction of novel functional materials. Here, we report for the first time the detailed studies of phonon properties of manganese hypophosphite templated with methylhydrazinium cations ([CH3NH2NH2][Mn(H2PO2)3]). Its room temperature vibrational spectra were recorded for both polycrystalline sample and a single crystal. The proposed assignment based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of the observed vibrational modes is also presented. It is worth noting this is first report on polarized Raman measurements in this class of hybrid perovskites. Full article
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Article
Effect of Interaction between 17β-Estradiol, 2-Methoxyestradiol and 16α-Hydroxyestrone with Chromium (VI) on Ovary Cancer Line SKOV-3: Preliminary Study
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215214 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. Some estrogens, as well as xenoestrogens, such as chromium (VI) (Cr(VI)), are indicated as important pathogenic agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and some its [...] Read more.
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. Some estrogens, as well as xenoestrogens, such as chromium (VI) (Cr(VI)), are indicated as important pathogenic agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of estradiol and some its metabolites upon exposure to the metalloestrogen Cr(VI) in an in vitro model. The changes in cell viability of malignant ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3 resistant to cisplatin) exposed to 17β-estradiol (E2) and its two metabolites, 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2) and 16α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE1), upon exposure to potassium chromate (VI) and its interactions were examined. The single and mixed models of action, during short and long times of incubation with estrogens, were applied. The different effects (synergism and antagonism) of estrogens on cell viability in the presence of Cr(VI) was observed. E2 and 16α-OHE1 caused a synergistic effect after exposure to Cr(VI). 2-MeOE2 showed an antagonistic effect on Cr(VI). The examined estrogens could be ranked according to the most protective effect or least toxicity in the order: 2-MeOE2 > E2 > 16α-OHE1. Early pre-incubation (24 h or 7 days) of cells with estrogens caused mostly an antagonistic effect—protective against the toxic action of Cr(VI). The beneficial action of estrogens on the toxic effect of Cr(VI), in the context of the risk of ovarian cancer, seems to be important and further studies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Physical and Chemical Methods for Facilitated Drug Delivery)
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Article
Development of the New Fluoride Ion-Selective Electrode Modified with FexOy Nanoparticles
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5213; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215213 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 912
Abstract
A new modified ion-selective electrode with membranes of LaF3 single crystals with different internal contacts (solid steel or electrolyte) and with FexOy nanoparticles as loading was developed. The best response characteristic with linear potential change was found in the [...] Read more.
A new modified ion-selective electrode with membranes of LaF3 single crystals with different internal contacts (solid steel or electrolyte) and with FexOy nanoparticles as loading was developed. The best response characteristic with linear potential change was found in the fluoride concentration range from 10−1 to 3.98 × 10−7 M. The detection limit for the electrolyte contact was determined at 7.41 × 10−8 M with a regression coefficient of 0.9932, while the regression coefficient for the solid contact was 0.9969. The potential change per concentration decade ranged from 50.3 to 62.4 mV, depending on whether the contact was solid or electrolytic. The prepared modified electrode has a long lifetime, as well as the possibility of application in different positions (solid contact), and it can also be used for the determination of iron ions. The electrode characterization was performed with scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis with the technique of electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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Article
Towards Volatile Organoselenium Compounds with Cost-Effective Synthesis
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5212; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215212 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 894
Abstract
The current portfolio of organoselenium compounds applicable as volatile precursors for atomic layer deposition can be denoted as very limited. Hence, we report herein facile and cost-effective preparation of two bis(trialkylstannyl)selenides as well as one selenole and three bis(trialkylsilyl)selenides. Their syntheses have been [...] Read more.
The current portfolio of organoselenium compounds applicable as volatile precursors for atomic layer deposition can be denoted as very limited. Hence, we report herein facile and cost-effective preparation of two bis(trialkylstannyl)selenides as well as one selenole and three bis(trialkylsilyl)selenides. Their syntheses have been optimized to: (i) use readily available and inexpensive starting materials, (ii) involve operationally simple methodology (heating in a pressure vessel), (iii) use a minimum amount of additives and catalysts, and (iv) either exclude additional purification or involve only simple distillation. The chemical structure of prepared Se derivatives was confirmed by multinuclear NMR and GC/MS. Their fundamental thermal properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and TGA methods that revealed thermal stability within the range of 160–300 °C. Full article
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Article
A Novel Chinese Honey from Amorpha fruticosa L.: Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5211; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215211 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
False indigo (Amorpha fruticosa L., A. fruticosa) is the preferred tree indigenous for windbreak and sand control in Northwest China, while information on nutritional and bioactive characteristics of its honey is rare. Herein, 12 honey of Amorpha fruticosa L. (AFH) were [...] Read more.
False indigo (Amorpha fruticosa L., A. fruticosa) is the preferred tree indigenous for windbreak and sand control in Northwest China, while information on nutritional and bioactive characteristics of its honey is rare. Herein, 12 honey of Amorpha fruticosa L. (AFH) were sampled in Northwest China and the nutritional composition was determined. Sixteen mineral element and ten dominant polyphenols content were identified and quantified by ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and HPLC-QTOF-MS (High performance liquid chromatography-Quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry), respectively. Moreover, AFH demonstrated high levels of DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity (IC50 100.41 ± 15.35 mg/mL), ferric reducing antioxidant power (2.04 ± 0.29 µmol FeSO4·7H2O/g), and ferrous ion-chelating activity (82.56 ± 16.01 mg Na2EDTA/kg), which were significantly associated with total phenolic contents (270.07 ± 27.15 mg GA/kg) and ascorbic acid contents (213.69 ± 27.87 mg/kg). The cell model verified that AFH exhibited dose-dependent preventive effects on pBR322 plasmid DNA and mouse lymphocyte DNA damage in response to oxidative stress. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for the future application of AFH as a potential antioxidant dietary in food industry. Full article
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Article
Biomimetic Alginate/Gelatin Cross-Linked Hydrogels Supplemented with Polyphosphate for Wound Healing Applications
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5210; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215210 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
In the present study, the fabrication of a biomimetic wound dressing that mimics the extracellular matrix, consisting of a hydrogel matrix composed of non-oxidized and periodate-oxidized marine alginate, was prepared to which gelatin was bound via Schiff base formation. Into this alginate/oxidized-alginate-gelatin hydrogel, [...] Read more.
In the present study, the fabrication of a biomimetic wound dressing that mimics the extracellular matrix, consisting of a hydrogel matrix composed of non-oxidized and periodate-oxidized marine alginate, was prepared to which gelatin was bound via Schiff base formation. Into this alginate/oxidized-alginate-gelatin hydrogel, polyP was stably but reversibly integrated by ionic cross-linking with Zn2+ ions. Thereby, a soft hybrid material is obtained, consisting of a more rigid alginate scaffold and porous structures formed by the oxidized-alginate-gelatin hydrogel with ionically cross-linked polyP. Two forms of the Zn-polyP-containing matrices were obtained based on the property of polyP to form, at neutral pH, a coacervate—the physiologically active form of the polymer. At alkaline conditions (pH 10), it will form nanoparticles, acting as a depot that is converted at pH 7 into the coacervate phase. Both polyP-containing hydrogels were biologically active and significantly enhanced cell growth/viability and attachment/spreading of human epidermal keratinocytes compared to control hydrogels without any adverse effect on reconstructed human epidermis samples in an in vitro skin irritation test system. From these data, we conclude that polyP-containing alginate/oxidized-alginate-gelatin hydrogels may provide a suitable regeneratively active matrix for wound healing for potential in vivo applications. Full article
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Review
Extracellular Vesicle Identification Using Label-Free Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: Detection and Signal Analysis Strategies
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5209; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215209 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been widely investigated as promising biomarkers for the liquid biopsy of diseases, owing to their countless roles in biological systems. Furthermore, with the notable progress of exosome research, the use of label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to identify and [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been widely investigated as promising biomarkers for the liquid biopsy of diseases, owing to their countless roles in biological systems. Furthermore, with the notable progress of exosome research, the use of label-free surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to identify and distinguish disease-related EVs has emerged. Even in the absence of specific markers for disease-related EVs, label-free SERS enables the identification of unique patterns of disease-related EVs through their molecular fingerprints. In this review, we describe label-free SERS approaches for disease-related EV pattern identification in terms of substrate design and signal analysis strategies. We first describe the general characteristics of EVs and their SERS signals. We then present recent works on applied plasmonic nanostructures to sensitively detect EVs and notable methods to interpret complex spectral data. This review also discusses current challenges and future prospects of label-free SERS-based disease-related EV pattern identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Health and Medicine)
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Review
Recent Advances in Electrochemiluminescence and Chemiluminescence of Metal Nanoclusters
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215208 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Metal nanoclusters (NCs), including Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, Ni and alloy NCs, have become more and more popular sensor probes with good solubility, biocompatibility, size-dependent luminescence and catalysis. The development of electrochemiluminescent (ECL) and chemiluminescent (CL) analytical methods based on various metal NCs [...] Read more.
Metal nanoclusters (NCs), including Au, Ag, Cu, Pt, Ni and alloy NCs, have become more and more popular sensor probes with good solubility, biocompatibility, size-dependent luminescence and catalysis. The development of electrochemiluminescent (ECL) and chemiluminescent (CL) analytical methods based on various metal NCs have become research hotspots. To improve ECL and CL performances, many strategies are proposed, from metal core to ligand, from intermolecular electron transfer to intramolecular electron transfer. Combined with a variety of amplification technology, i.e., nanostructure-based enhancement and biological signal amplification, highly sensitive ECL and CL analytical methods are developed. We have summarized the research progresses since 2016. Also, we discuss the current challenges and perspectives on the development of this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 25th Anniversary of Molecules—Recent Advances in Nanochemistry)
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Review
Industrial Applications of Ionic Liquids
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215207 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Since their conception, ionic liquids (ILs) have been investigated for an extensive range of applications including in solvent chemistry, catalysis, and electrochemistry. This is due to their designation as designer solvents, whereby the physiochemical properties of an IL can be tuned for specific [...] Read more.
Since their conception, ionic liquids (ILs) have been investigated for an extensive range of applications including in solvent chemistry, catalysis, and electrochemistry. This is due to their designation as designer solvents, whereby the physiochemical properties of an IL can be tuned for specific applications. This has led to significant research activity both by academia and industry from the 1990s, accelerating research in many fields and leading to the filing of numerous patents. However, while ILs have received great interest in the patent literature, only a limited number of processes are known to have been commercialised. This review aims to provide a perspective on the successful commercialisation of IL-based processes, to date, and the advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of ILs in industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids, from Their Synthesis to Their Applications)
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Article
Neuroprotective Effects of Safflower Flavonoid Extract in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Model of Parkinson’s Disease May Be Related to its Anti-Inflammatory Action
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5206; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215206 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 925
Abstract
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. L.), a Chinese materia medica, is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, with flavonoids being the major active components. Multiple flavonoids in safflower bind to Parkinson’s disease (PD)-related protein DJ-1. Safflower flavonoid extract (SAFE) [...] Read more.
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. L.), a Chinese materia medica, is widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, with flavonoids being the major active components. Multiple flavonoids in safflower bind to Parkinson’s disease (PD)-related protein DJ-1. Safflower flavonoid extract (SAFE) improved behavioral indicators in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of PD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We used a 6-OHDA-induced mouse model of PD and a primary neuron-astrocyte coculture system to determine the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of SAFE. After three weeks of SAFE administration, behavioral indicators of PD mice were improved. SAFE regulated the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine metabolism. It significantly inhibited the activation of astrocytes surrounding the substantia nigra and reduced Iba-1 protein level in the striatum of PD mice. SAFE reduced the plasma content of inflammatory factors and suppressed the activation of nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In the coculture system, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside and anhydrosafflor yellow B significantly improved neuronal survival, suppressed neuronal apoptosis, and reduced IL-1β and IL-10 levels in the medium. Thus, SAFE showed a significant anti-PD effect, which is mainly associated with flavonoid anti-inflammatory activities. Full article
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Article
Synthesis, In Silico Prediction and In Vitro Evaluation of Antitumor Activities of Novel Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine, Xanthine and Lumazine Derivatives
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215205 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 866
Abstract
Ethyl 5-arylpyridopyrimidine-6-carboxylates 3ad were prepared as a one pot three component reaction via the condensation of different aromatic aldehydes and ethyl acetoacetate with 6-amino-1-benzyluracil 1a under reflux condition in ethanol. Additionally, condensation of ethyl 2-(2-hydroxybenzylidene) acetoacetate with 6-amino-1-benzyluracil in DMF afforded [...] Read more.
Ethyl 5-arylpyridopyrimidine-6-carboxylates 3ad were prepared as a one pot three component reaction via the condensation of different aromatic aldehydes and ethyl acetoacetate with 6-amino-1-benzyluracil 1a under reflux condition in ethanol. Additionally, condensation of ethyl 2-(2-hydroxybenzylidene) acetoacetate with 6-amino-1-benzyluracil in DMF afforded 6-acetylpyridopyrimidine-7-one 3e; a facile, operationally, simple and efficient one-pot synthesis of 8-arylxanthines 6af is reported by refluxing 5,6-diaminouracil 4 with aromatic aldehydes in DMF. Moreover, 6-aryllumazines 7ad was obtained via the reaction of 5,6-diaminouracil with the appropriate aromatic aldehydes in triethyl orthoformate under reflux condition. The synthesized compounds were characterized by spectral (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR and mass spectra) and elemental analyses. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for their anticancer activity against lung cancer A549 cell line. Furthermore, a molecular-docking study was employed to determine the possible mode of action of the synthesized compounds against a group of proteins highly implicated in cancer progression, especially lung cancer. Docking results showed that compounds 3b, 6c, 6d, 6e, 7c and 7d were the best potential docked compounds against most of the tested proteins, especially CDK2, Jak2, and DHFR proteins. These results are in agreement with cytotoxicity results, which shed a light on the promising activity of these novel six heterocyclic derivatives for further investigation as potential chemotherapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Chemistry Including Heteroatoms)
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Review
Sample Preparation to Determine Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in an All-Water Matrix: Solid Phase Extraction
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5204; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215204 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1466
Abstract
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are abundantly used by people, and some of them are excreted unaltered or as metabolites through urine, with the sewage being the most important source to their release to the environment. These compounds are in almost all [...] Read more.
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are abundantly used by people, and some of them are excreted unaltered or as metabolites through urine, with the sewage being the most important source to their release to the environment. These compounds are in almost all types of water (wastewater, surface water, groundwater, etc.) at concentrations ranging from ng/L to µg/L. The isolation and concentration of the PPCPs from water achieves the appropriate sensitivity. This step is mostly based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) but also includes other approaches (dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), buckypaper, SPE using multicartridges, etc.). In this review article, we aim to discuss the procedures employed to extract PPCPs from any type of water sample prior to their determination via an instrumental analytical technique. Furthermore, we put forward not only the merits of the different methods available but also a number of inconsistencies, divergences, weaknesses and disadvantages of the procedures found in literature, as well as the systems proposed to overcome them and to improve the methodology. Environmental applications of the developed techniques are also discussed. The pressing need for new analytical innovations, emerging trends and future prospects was also considered. Full article
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Article
Essential Oil of Calotropis procera: Comparative Chemical Profiles, Antimicrobial Activity, and Allelopathic Potential on Weeds
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5203; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215203 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1356
Abstract
Plants are considered green resources for thousands of bioactive compounds. Essential oils (EOs) are an important class of secondary compounds with various biological activities, including allelopathic and antimicrobial activities. Herein, the present study aimed to compare the chemical profiles of the EOs of [...] Read more.
Plants are considered green resources for thousands of bioactive compounds. Essential oils (EOs) are an important class of secondary compounds with various biological activities, including allelopathic and antimicrobial activities. Herein, the present study aimed to compare the chemical profiles of the EOs of the widely distributed medicinal plant Calotropis procera collected from Saudi Arabia and Egypt. In addition, this study also aimed to assess their allelopathic and antimicrobial activities. The EOs from Egyptian and Saudi ecospecies were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed via GC-MS. The correlation between the analyzed EOs and those published from Egypt, India, and Nigeria was assessed by principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC). The allelopathic activity of the extracted EOs was tested against two weeds (Bidens pilosa and Dactyloctenium aegyptium). Moreover, the EOs were tested for antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial and two fungal strains. Ninety compounds were identified from both ecospecies, where 76 compounds were recorded in Saudi ecospecies and 33 in the Egyptian one. Terpenes were recorded as the main components along with hydrocarbons, aromatics, and carotenoids. The sesquiterpenes (54.07%) were the most abundant component of EO of the Saudi sample, while the diterpenes (44.82%) represented the mains of the Egyptian one. Hinesol (13.50%), trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (12.33%), 1,4-trans-1,7-cis-acorenone (7.62%), phytol (8.73%), and myristicin (6.13%) were found as the major constituents of EO of the Saudi sample, while phytol (38.02%), n-docosane (6.86%), linoleic acid (6.36%), n-pentacosane (6.31%), and bicyclogermacrene (4.37%) represented the main compounds of the Egyptian one. It was evident that the EOs of both ecospecies had potent phytotoxic activity against the two tested weeds, while the EO of the Egyptian ecospecies was more effective, particularly on the weed D. aegyptium. Moreover, the EOs showed substantial antibacterial and antifungal activities. The present study revealed that the EOs of Egyptian and Saudi ecospecies were different in quality and quantity, which could be attributed to the variant environmental and climatic conditions. The EOs of both ecospecies showed significant allelopathic and antimicrobial activity; therefore, these EOs could be considered as potential green eco-friendly resources for weed and microbe control, considering that this plant is widely grown in arid habitats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils in Weed Control and Food Preservation II)
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Article
Batch Studies of Phosphonate and Phosphate Adsorption on Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GFH) with Membrane Concentrate and Its Synthetic Replicas
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5202; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215202 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 830
Abstract
Phosphonates are widely used as antiscalants for softening processes in drinking water treatment. To prevent eutrophication and accumulation in the sediment, it is desirable to remove them from the membrane concentrate before they are discharged into receiving water bodies. This study describes batch [...] Read more.
Phosphonates are widely used as antiscalants for softening processes in drinking water treatment. To prevent eutrophication and accumulation in the sediment, it is desirable to remove them from the membrane concentrate before they are discharged into receiving water bodies. This study describes batch experiments with synthetic solutions and real membrane concentrate, both in the presence of and absence of granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), to better understand the influence of ions on phosphonate and phosphate adsorption. To this end, experiments were conducted with six different phosphonates, using different molar Ca:phosphonate ratios. The calcium already contained in the GFH plays an essential role in the elimination process, as it can be re-dissolved, and, therefore, increase the molar Ca:phosphonate ratio. (Hydrogen-)carbonate ions had a competitive effect on the adsorption of phosphonates and phosphate, whereas the influence of sulfate and nitrate ions was negligible. Up to pH 8, the presence of CaII had a positive effect on adsorption, probably due to the formation of ternary complexes. At pH > 8, increased removal was observed, with either direct precipitation of Ca:phosphonate complexes or the presence of inorganic precipitates of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate serving as adsorbents for the phosphorus compounds. In addition, the presence of (hydrogen-)carbonate ions resulted in precipitation of CaCO3 and/or dolomite, which also acted as adsorbents for the phosphorus compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials and Technologies for Wastewater Treatment)
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Article
In Vitro Prebiotic Effects of Malto-Oligosaccharides Containing Water-Soluble Dietary Fiber
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5201; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215201 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 854
Abstract
This study measured the proliferative activity of malto-oligosaccharide (MOS) as a prebiotic against Bifidobacteria, resistance to digestion in vitro, and changes during in vitro fermentation by human fecal microorganisms. It consisted of 21.74%, 18.84%, and 11.76% of maltotriose, maltotetraose, and maltopentaose produced by [...] Read more.
This study measured the proliferative activity of malto-oligosaccharide (MOS) as a prebiotic against Bifidobacteria, resistance to digestion in vitro, and changes during in vitro fermentation by human fecal microorganisms. It consisted of 21.74%, 18.84%, and 11.76% of maltotriose, maltotetraose, and maltopentaose produced by amylase (HATT), respectively. When 1% of MOS was added to a modified PYF medium as the carbon source, proliferation of Bifidobacterium breve was increased significantly. During the in vitro digestion test, MOS was partially degraded by intestinal enzymes. Fermentation characteristics by human fecal microorganisms were evaluated by adding 1% galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), as well as 1% and 2% MOS as carbon sources to the basal medium, respectively. In comparison with the addition of 1% of MOS and GOS, the total short chain fatty acid (SCFA) content increased over time when 2% of MOS was added. The species diversity and richness of intestinal microbiota increased significantly with 2% MOS compared to those with 1% GOS. In addition, the 2% addition of MOS reduced intestinal pathobiont microorganisms and increased commensal microorganisms including Bifidobacterium genus. Collectively, MOS produced by amylase increased the SCFA production and enhanced the growth of beneficial bacteria during in vitro fermentation by human fecal microbiota. Full article
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Review
Branched Ubiquitination: Detection Methods, Biological Functions and Chemical Synthesis
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5200; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215200 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
Ubiquitination is a versatile posttranslational modification that elicits signaling roles to impact on various cellular processes and disease states. The versatility is a result of the complexity of ubiquitin conjugates, ranging from a single ubiquitin monomer to polymers with different length and linkage [...] Read more.
Ubiquitination is a versatile posttranslational modification that elicits signaling roles to impact on various cellular processes and disease states. The versatility is a result of the complexity of ubiquitin conjugates, ranging from a single ubiquitin monomer to polymers with different length and linkage types. Recent studies have revealed the abundant existence of branched ubiquitin chains in which one ubiquitin molecule is connected to two or more ubiquitin moieties in the same ubiquitin polymer. Compared to the homotypic ubiquitin chain, the branched chain is recognized or processed differently by readers and erasers of the ubiquitin system, respectively, resulting in a qualitative or quantitative alteration of the functional output. Furthermore, certain types of branched ubiquitination are induced by cellular stresses, implicating their important physiological role in stress adaption. In addition, the current chemical methodologies of solid phase peptide synthesis and expanding genetic code approach have been developed to synthesize different architectures of branched ubiquitin chains. The synthesized branched ubiquitin chains have shown their significance in understanding the topologies and binding partners of the branched chains. Here, we discuss the recent progresses on the detection, functional characterization and synthesis of branched ubiquitin chains as well as the future perspectives of this emerging field. Full article
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Article
Discovery of 12O—A Novel Oral Multi-Kinase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Solid Tumor
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5199; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215199 - 09 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 764
Abstract
A novel series of pyrimidine-benzotriazole derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity against human solid tumor cell lines. The most promising molecule 12O was identified for its excellent antiproliferative activities, especially against the SiHa cell line with IC50 value [...] Read more.
A novel series of pyrimidine-benzotriazole derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their anticancer activity against human solid tumor cell lines. The most promising molecule 12O was identified for its excellent antiproliferative activities, especially against the SiHa cell line with IC50 value as 0.009 μM. Kinase inhibition assay assessed 12O was a potential multi-kinase inhibitor, which possessed potent inhibitory activities against cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and fms-like tyrosine kinase (FLT) with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Molecular docking studies illustrated that the introduction of triazole moiety in 12O was critical for CDKs inhibition. In addition, 12O inhibited cancer cell proliferation, colony-formation, and cell cycle progression and provoked apoptotic death in vitro. In an SiHa xenograft mouse model, a once-daily dose of compound 12O at 20 mg/kg significantly suppressed the tumor growth without obvious toxicity. Taken together, 12O provided valuable guide for further structural optimization for CDKs and FLT inhibitors. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anti-α-glucosidase Activities of Various Solvent Extracts and Major Bioactive Components from the Seeds of Myristica fragrans
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5198; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215198 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
Myristica fragrans is a well-known species for flavoring many food products and for formulation of perfume and medicated balm. It is also used to treat indigestion, stomach ulcers, liver disorders, and, as emmenagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, nervine, and aphrodisiac. We examined antioxidant properties and [...] Read more.
Myristica fragrans is a well-known species for flavoring many food products and for formulation of perfume and medicated balm. It is also used to treat indigestion, stomach ulcers, liver disorders, and, as emmenagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, nervine, and aphrodisiac. We examined antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds in various solvent extracts from the seeds of M. fragrans. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone extracts exhibited relatively strong antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), superoxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging tests. Furthermore, methanol extracts also displayed significant anti-α-glucosidase activity. Examined and compared to the various solvent extracts for their chemical compositions using HPLC analysis, we isolated the ten higher content compounds and analyzed antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase activities. Among the isolates, dehydrodiisoeugenol, malabaricone B and malabaricone C were main antioxidant components in seeds of M. fragrans. Malabaricone C exhibited stronger antioxidant capacities than others based on lower half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays, and it also showed significant inhibition of α-glucosidase. These results shown that methanol was found to be the most efficient solvent for extracting the active components from the seeds of M. fragrans, and this material is a potential good source of natural antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Capacities of Natural Products 2020)
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Article
Properties and Application of Multifunctional Composite Polypropylene-Based Films Incorporating a Combination of BHT, BHA and Sorbic Acid in Extending Donut Shelf-Life
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215197 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
To extend the shelf-life of packaged donut without the addition of preservative, polypropylene-based active composite films loaded with a combination of sorbic acid, BHA and BHT were prepared by the extrusion moulding method: T1 (Control-pure PP-film), T2 (PP-BHT1%-SA2%), T3 (PP-BHA3%-SA2%) [...] Read more.
To extend the shelf-life of packaged donut without the addition of preservative, polypropylene-based active composite films loaded with a combination of sorbic acid, BHA and BHT were prepared by the extrusion moulding method: T1 (Control-pure PP-film), T2 (PP-BHT1%-SA2%), T3 (PP-BHA3%-SA2%) and T4 (PP-BHT1%-BHA1%-SA2%). The incorporation of active additives enhanced water vapour permeability (WVP) and increased oxygen permeability of films. Active films had higher antioxidant activity than pure PP in the order T4 > T2 > T3 (89.11, 83.40 and 79.16%). In vitro examinations demonstrated a significant antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli and S. aureus growth. Overall migration was not significantly different for watery food simulants, while in acidic and fatty foods increased it significantly. The effect of the active films on the fried and packaged donut samples showed significantly higher moisture contents and peroxide values, while acidity was lower. T2 film is proposed due to the preservation of the intrinsic properties of the film, increasing the storage period up to 25 to 50 days. Full article
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Article
Antimicrobial s-PBC Coatings for Innovative Multifunctional Water Filters
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5196; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215196 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Biological contamination is a typical issue in water treatment. Highly concentrated microbial suspensions in a water flow may cause filter occlusion and biofilm formation, affecting the lifespan and quality of water purification systems and increasing the risk of nosocomial infections. In order to [...] Read more.
Biological contamination is a typical issue in water treatment. Highly concentrated microbial suspensions in a water flow may cause filter occlusion and biofilm formation, affecting the lifespan and quality of water purification systems and increasing the risk of nosocomial infections. In order to contrast the biofilm formation, most of the conventional strategies rely on the water chemical modification and/or on the use of filters functional coatings. The former is unsafe for huge chemicals spilling required; therefore, we focus on the second approach and we propose the use of a sulfonated pentablock copolymer (s-PBC, commercially named Nexar™) as innovative multifunctional coating for improving the performance of commercial water filters. S-PBC-coated polypropylene (PP) samples were tested against the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The covering of PP with s-PBC results in a more hydrophilic, acid, and negatively charged surface. These properties avoid the adhesion and proliferation attempts of planktonic bacteria, i.e., the biofilm formation. Inhibition tests were performed on the as-modified filters and an evident antibacterial activity was observed. The results point out the possibility of using NexarTM as coating layer for filters with antifouling properties and a simultaneous ability to remove bacteria and cationic dyes from water. Full article
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Review
Daylight Photodynamic Therapy: An Update
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215195 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1551
Abstract
Daylight photodynamic therapy (dPDT) uses sunlight as a light source to treat superficial skin cancer. Using sunlight as a therapeutic device has been present for centuries, forming the basis of photodynamic therapy in the 20th century. Compared to conventional PDT, dPDT can be [...] Read more.
Daylight photodynamic therapy (dPDT) uses sunlight as a light source to treat superficial skin cancer. Using sunlight as a therapeutic device has been present for centuries, forming the basis of photodynamic therapy in the 20th century. Compared to conventional PDT, dPDT can be a less painful, more convenient and an effective alternative. The first clinical uses of dPDT on skin cancers began in Copenhagen in 2008. Currently, aminolevulinic acid-mediated dPDT has been approved to treat actinic keratosis patients in Europe. In this review article, we introduce the history and mechanism of dPDT and focus on the pros and cons of dPDT in treating superficial skin cancers. The future applications of dPDT on other skin diseases are expected to expand as conventional PDT evolves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer Treatment)
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Article
Strategies to Achieve High Strength and Ductility of Pulsed Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Co-Cu by Tuning the Deposition Parameters
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5194; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215194 - 08 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1004
Abstract
Strategies to improve tensile strength and ductility of pulsed electrodeposited nanocrystalline Co-Cu were investigated. Parameters of deposition, which are pulse current density, duty cycle, and pulse-on time were adjusted to produce nanocrystalline Co-Cu deposits with different microstructures and morphologies. The most significant improvement [...] Read more.
Strategies to improve tensile strength and ductility of pulsed electrodeposited nanocrystalline Co-Cu were investigated. Parameters of deposition, which are pulse current density, duty cycle, and pulse-on time were adjusted to produce nanocrystalline Co-Cu deposits with different microstructures and morphologies. The most significant improvement of strength and ductility was observed at nanocrystalline Co-Cu deposited, at a low duty cycle (10%) and a low pulse-on time (0.3 ms), with a high pulse current density (1000 A/m2). Enhancement of ductility of nanocrystalline Co-Cu was also obtained through annealing at 200 °C, while annealing at 300 °C leads to strengthening of materials with reduction of ductility. In the as deposited state, tensile strength and ductility of nanocrystalline Co-Cu is strongly influenced by several factors such as concentration of Cu, grain size, and processing flaws (e.g., crystal growth border, porosity, and internal stresses), which can be controlled by adjusting the parameters of deposition. In addition, the presence of various microstructural features (e.g., spinodal and phase decomposition), as well as recovery processes induced by annealing treatments, also have a significant contribution to the tensile strength and ductility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis and Structural Investigations of Nanocrystalline Materials)
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Article
Sugar-Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Selenide Semiconductor Nanocrystals under Ultrasound Irradiation
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215193 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1528
Abstract
Silver selenide (Ag2Se) is a promising nanomaterial due to its outstanding optoelectronic properties and countless bio-applications. To the best of our knowledge, we report, for the first time, a simple and easy method for the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of Ag2Se [...] Read more.
Silver selenide (Ag2Se) is a promising nanomaterial due to its outstanding optoelectronic properties and countless bio-applications. To the best of our knowledge, we report, for the first time, a simple and easy method for the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of Ag2Se nanoparticles (NPs) by mixing aqueous solutions of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and selenous acid (H2SeO3) that act as Ag and Se sources, respectively, in the presence of dissolved fructose and starch that act as reducing and stabilizing agents, respectively. The concentrations of mono- and polysaccharides were screened to determine their effect on the size, shape and colloidal stability of the as-synthesized Ag2Se NPs which, in turn, impact the optical properties of these NPs. The morphology of the as-synthesized Ag2Se NPs was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and both α- and β-phases of Ag2Se were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties of Ag2Se were studied using UV–Vis spectroscopy and its elemental composition was determined non-destructively using scanning electron microscopy–energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS). The biological activity of the Ag2Se NPs was assessed using cytotoxic and bactericidal approaches. Our findings pave the way to the cost-effective, fast and scalable production of valuable Ag2Se NPs that may be utilized in numerous fields. Full article
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Article
Antiglioma Potential of Coumarins Combined with Sorafenib
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5192; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215192 - 08 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Coumarins, which occur naturally in the plant kingdom, are diverse class of secondary metabolites. With their antiproliferative, chemopreventive and antiangiogenetic properties, they can be used in the treatment of cancer. Their therapeutic potential depends on the type and location of the attachment of [...] Read more.
Coumarins, which occur naturally in the plant kingdom, are diverse class of secondary metabolites. With their antiproliferative, chemopreventive and antiangiogenetic properties, they can be used in the treatment of cancer. Their therapeutic potential depends on the type and location of the attachment of substituents to the ring. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of simple coumarins (osthole, umbelliferone, esculin, and 4-hydroxycoumarin) combined with sorafenib (specific inhibitor of Raf (Rapidly Accelerated Fibrosarcoma) kinase) in programmed death induction in human glioblastoma multiforme (T98G) and anaplastic astrocytoma (MOGGCCM) cells lines. Osthole and umbelliferone were isolated from fruits: Mutellina purpurea L. and Heracleum leskowii L., respectively, while esculin and 4-hydroxycoumarin were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Apoptosis, autophagy and necrosis were identified microscopically after straining with specific fluorochromes. The level of caspase 3, Beclin 1, PI3K (Phosphoinositide 3-kinase), and Raf kinases were estimated by immunoblotting. Transfection with specific siRNA (small interfering RNA) was used to block Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), Raf, and PI3K expression. Cell migration was tested with the wound healing assay. The present study has shown that all the coumarins eliminated the MOGGCCM and T98G tumor cells mainly via apoptosis and, to a lesser extent, via autophagy. Osthole, which has an isoprenyl moiety, was shown to be the most effective compound. Sorafenib did not change the proapoptotic activity of this coumarin; however, it reduced the level of autophagy. At the molecular level, the induction of apoptosis was associated with a decrease in the expression of PI3K and Raf kinases, whereas an increase in the level of Beclin 1 was observed in the case of autophagy. Inhibition of the expression of this protein by specific siRNA eliminated autophagy. Moreover, the blocking of the expression of Bcl-2 and PI3K significantly increased the level of apoptosis. Osthole and sorafenib successfully inhibited the migration of the MOGGCCM and T98G cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coumarin and Its Derivatives)
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Article
Carvone Decreases Melanin Content by Inhibiting Melanoma Cell Proliferation via the Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP) Pathway
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5191; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215191 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1025
Abstract
Melanin, which determines the color of the skin and hair, is initially synthesized to protect the skin from ultraviolet light; however, excessive melanin pigmentation caused by abnormal cell proliferation can result in various melanocytic lesions. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is known to regulate [...] Read more.
Melanin, which determines the color of the skin and hair, is initially synthesized to protect the skin from ultraviolet light; however, excessive melanin pigmentation caused by abnormal cell proliferation can result in various melanocytic lesions. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is known to regulate cell cycle progression and consequently to inhibit the division of abnormally proliferating cells. In this work, we aimed to test whether carvone, a scent compound from plants, inhibits proliferation and subsequently reduces melanin content of melanoma cells and to determine whether its beneficial effects are mediated by the cAMP pathway. We found that carvone decreases melanin content and inhibits melanoma cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Meanwhile, it inhibited the activation of cell cycle-associated proteins such as cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). Of note, the beneficial effects of carvone were abrogated by cAMP inhibition. Our findings indicate potential benefits of carvone for the treatment of melanomas and presumably other hyperpigmentation-related dermatological disorders such as melasmas, lentigines, and excessive freckles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Flavours and Fragrances)
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Article
In Vitro and In Silico Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of New Indole-Based 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles as EGFR and COX-2 Inhibitors
Molecules 2020, 25(21), 5190; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules25215190 - 07 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are crucial targetable enzymes in cancer management. Therefore, herein, new 2-[(5-((1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio]-N-(thiazol/benzothiazol-2-yl)acetamides (2a–i) were designed and synthesized as EGFR and COX-2 inhibitors. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 2ai [...] Read more.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are crucial targetable enzymes in cancer management. Therefore, herein, new 2-[(5-((1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio]-N-(thiazol/benzothiazol-2-yl)acetamides (2a–i) were designed and synthesized as EGFR and COX-2 inhibitors. The cytotoxic effects of compounds 2ai on HCT116 human colorectal carcinoma, A549 human lung adenocarcinoma, and A375 human melanoma cell lines were determined using MTT assay. 2-[(5-((1H-Indol-3-yl)methyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio]-N-(6-ethoxybenzothiazol-2-yl)acetamide (2e) exhibited the most significant anticancer activity against HCT116, A549, and A375 cell lines with IC50 values of 6.43 ± 0.72 μM, 9.62 ± 1.14 μM, and 8.07 ± 1.36 μM, respectively, when compared with erlotinib (IC50 = 17.86 ± 3.22 μM, 19.41 ± 2.38 μM, and 23.81 ± 4.17 μM, respectively). Further mechanistic assays demonstrated that compound 2e enhanced apoptosis (28.35%) in HCT116 cells more significantly than erlotinib (7.42%) and caused notable EGFR inhibition with an IC50 value of 2.80 ± 0.52 μM when compared with erlotinib (IC50 = 0.04 ± 0.01 μM). However, compound 2e did not cause any significant COX-2 inhibition, indicating that this compound showed COX-independent anticancer activity. The molecular docking study of compound 2e emphasized that the benzothiazole ring of this compound occupied the allosteric pocket in the EGFR active site. In conclusion, compound 2e is a promising EGFR inhibitor that warrants further clinical investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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