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Article

Development of Chitosan-Based Surfaces to Prevent Single- and Dual-Species Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

1
LEPABE-Laboratory for Process Engineering, Environment, Biotechnology and Energy, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2
Grupo de Reciclado y Valorización de Materiales Residuales (REVAL), Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas (IIM-CSIC), C/Eduardo Cabello, 6, CP36208 Vigo, Galicia, Spain
3
International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, Av. Mestre José Veiga s/n, 4715-330 Braga, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Cédric Delattre
Received: 31 May 2021 / Revised: 6 July 2021 / Accepted: 14 July 2021 / Published: 20 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Early-Career Researchers in Chemistry)
Implantable medical devices (IMDs) are susceptible to microbial adhesion and biofilm formation, which lead to several clinical complications, including the occurrence of implant-associated infections. Polylactic acid (PLA) and its composites are currently used for the construction of IMDs. In addition, chitosan (CS) is a natural polymer that has been widely used in the medical field due to its antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties, which can be dependent on molecular weight (Mw). The present study aims to evaluate the performance of CS-based surfaces of different Mw to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. For this purpose, CS-based surfaces were produced by dip-coating and the presence of CS and its derivatives onto PLA films, as well surface homogeneity were confirmed by contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial activity of the functionalized surfaces was evaluated against single- and dual-species biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chitosan-based surfaces were able to inhibit the development of single- and dual-species biofilms by reducing the number of total, viable, culturable, and viable but nonculturable cells up to 79%, 90%, 81%, and 96%, respectively, being their activity dependent on chitosan Mw. The effect of CS-based surfaces on the inhibition of biofilm formation was corroborated by biofilm structure analysis using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which revealed a decrease in the biovolume and thickness of the biofilm formed on CS-based surfaces compared to PLA. Overall, these results support the potential of low Mw CS for coating polymeric devices such as IMDs where the two bacteria tested are common colonizers and reduce their biofilm formation. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiofilm activity; chitosan; chitosan-polylactic acid surfaces; dual-species biofilms; implantable medical devices; polylactic acid surfaces; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; single-species biofilms; Staphylococcus aureus antibiofilm activity; chitosan; chitosan-polylactic acid surfaces; dual-species biofilms; implantable medical devices; polylactic acid surfaces; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; single-species biofilms; Staphylococcus aureus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lima, M.; Teixeira-Santos, R.; Gomes, L.C.; Faria, S.I.; Valcarcel, J.; Vázquez, J.A.; Cerqueira, M.A.; Pastrana, L.; Bourbon, A.I.; Mergulhão, F.J. Development of Chitosan-Based Surfaces to Prevent Single- and Dual-Species Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Molecules 2021, 26, 4378. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26144378

AMA Style

Lima M, Teixeira-Santos R, Gomes LC, Faria SI, Valcarcel J, Vázquez JA, Cerqueira MA, Pastrana L, Bourbon AI, Mergulhão FJ. Development of Chitosan-Based Surfaces to Prevent Single- and Dual-Species Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Molecules. 2021; 26(14):4378. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26144378

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lima, Marta, Rita Teixeira-Santos, Luciana C. Gomes, Sara I. Faria, Jesus Valcarcel, José A. Vázquez, Miguel A. Cerqueira, Lorenzo Pastrana, Ana I. Bourbon, and Filipe J. Mergulhão 2021. "Development of Chitosan-Based Surfaces to Prevent Single- and Dual-Species Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa" Molecules 26, no. 14: 4378. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26144378

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