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Article

Influence of the Use of an Ionic Liquid as Pre-Hydrodistillation Maceration Medium on the Composition and Yield of Cannabis sativa L. Essential Oil

1
Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, Via Bonanno 6, 56126 Pisa, Italy
2
PlantLab, Institute of Life Sciences, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Via Guidiccioni 8-10, 56010 San Giuliano Terme (PI), Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
In loving memory.
Academic Editors: Farid Chemat, Elena Ibáñez and Sylvain Antoniotti
Received: 10 August 2021 / Revised: 13 September 2021 / Accepted: 15 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Chemistry – Towards “Green Chemistry 2.0”)
Cannabis sativa L. is a multi-purpose crop, whose resilience, adaptability and soil-enriching properties make it a low-impact production. In the last years, the cultivation of the “industrial” hemp varieties (THC < 0.2%) has been promoted by many Countries, opening a whole new market of hemp-derived products, such as its essential oil (EO). Its distillation might represent an effective method to exploit a residue of the hemp fiber production (flowers), complying with the guidelines of the circular economy. In the present work, different concentrations of an ionic liquid (IL; 1,3-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium dimethylphosphate) have been studied as a pre-hydrodistillation maceration medium. The EO yields have been evaluated, and their compositions have been analyzed by GC-EIMS. The use of 100% and 90% IL concentrations gave a hydrodistillation yield increment of 250% and 200%, respectively. The 200% yield increase was maintained when the 100% IL was recycled after the hydrodistillation. The lower IL concentrations incremented the cannabinoid and oxygenated sesquiterpene contents, while the opposite was true for sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The proposed IL-enhanced hydrodistillation medium applied to hemp, studied for the first time in the present work, might be used to both (i) noteworthy increment the hydrodistillation yield and (ii) modulate the obtained EO composition based on the desired final product. View Full-Text
Keywords: dioecious cultivar Carmagnola; circular economy; distillation enhancement; 1,3-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium dimethylphosphate dioecious cultivar Carmagnola; circular economy; distillation enhancement; 1,3-dimethyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium dimethylphosphate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mezzetta, A.; Ascrizzi, R.; Martinelli, M.; Pelosi, F.; Chiappe, C.; Guazzelli, L.; Flamini, G. Influence of the Use of an Ionic Liquid as Pre-Hydrodistillation Maceration Medium on the Composition and Yield of Cannabis sativa L. Essential Oil. Molecules 2021, 26, 5654. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26185654

AMA Style

Mezzetta A, Ascrizzi R, Martinelli M, Pelosi F, Chiappe C, Guazzelli L, Flamini G. Influence of the Use of an Ionic Liquid as Pre-Hydrodistillation Maceration Medium on the Composition and Yield of Cannabis sativa L. Essential Oil. Molecules. 2021; 26(18):5654. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26185654

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mezzetta, Andrea, Roberta Ascrizzi, Marco Martinelli, Filomena Pelosi, Cinzia Chiappe, Lorenzo Guazzelli, and Guido Flamini. 2021. "Influence of the Use of an Ionic Liquid as Pre-Hydrodistillation Maceration Medium on the Composition and Yield of Cannabis sativa L. Essential Oil" Molecules 26, no. 18: 5654. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26185654

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