Next Article in Journal
The Effect of α-, β- and γ-Cyclodextrin on Wheat Dough and Bread Properties
Next Article in Special Issue
Citrus aurantium L. Active Constituents, Biological Effects and Extraction Methods. An Updated Review
Previous Article in Journal
In Search of the Driving Factor for the Microwave Curing of Epoxy Adhesives and for the Protection of the Base Substrate against Thermal Damage
Previous Article in Special Issue
Efficacy of Phytochemicals Derived from Avicennia officinalis for the Management of COVID-19: A Combined In Silico and Biochemical Study
Article

Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye Using Activated Carbon of Lemon Wood and Activated Carbon/Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanocomposite from Aqueous Solutions: A Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Study

1
Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166616471, Iran
2
Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166616471, Iran
3
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia No. 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, 32900 San Cibrao das Viñas, Ourense, Spain
4
Área de Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Universidad de Vigo, 32004 Vigo, Ourense, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lucian Baia
Received: 23 March 2021 / Revised: 1 April 2021 / Accepted: 11 April 2021 / Published: 13 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers from High Cited Researchers)
Activated carbon prepared from lemon (Citrus limon) wood (ACL) and ACL/Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposite were effectively used to remove the cationic dye of crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. The results showed that Fe3O4 nanoparticles were successfully placed in the structure of ACL and the produced nanocomposites showed superior magnetic properties. It was found that pH was the most effective parameter in the CV dye adsorption and pH of 9 gave the maximum adsorption efficiency of 93.5% and 98.3% for ACL and ACL/Fe3O4, respectively. The Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R) and Langmuir models were selected to investigate the CV dye adsorption equilibrium behavior for ACL and ACL/Fe3O4, respectively. A maximum adsorption capacity of 23.6 and 35.3 mg/g was obtained for ACL and ACL/Fe3O4, respectively indicating superior adsorption capacity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The kinetic data of the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order (PSO) kinetic model, indicating that chemical mechanisms may have an effect on the CV dye adsorption. The negative values obtained for Gibb’s free energy parameter (−20 < ΔG < 0 kJ/mol) showed that the adsorption process using both types of the adsorbents was physical. Moreover, the CV dye adsorption enthalpy (ΔH) values of −45.4 for ACL and −56.9 kJ/mol for ACL/Fe3O4 were obtained indicating that the adsorption process was exothermic. Overall, ACL and ACL/Fe3O4 magnetic nanocomposites provide a novel and effective type of adsorbents to remove CV dye from the aqueous solutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: activated carbon; magnetic nanoparticles; aqueous solution; cationic dye; isothermal models activated carbon; magnetic nanoparticles; aqueous solution; cationic dye; isothermal models
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Foroutan, R.; Peighambardoust, S.J.; Peighambardoust, S.H.; Pateiro, M.; Lorenzo, J.M. Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye Using Activated Carbon of Lemon Wood and Activated Carbon/Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanocomposite from Aqueous Solutions: A Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Study. Molecules 2021, 26, 2241. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26082241

AMA Style

Foroutan R, Peighambardoust SJ, Peighambardoust SH, Pateiro M, Lorenzo JM. Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye Using Activated Carbon of Lemon Wood and Activated Carbon/Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanocomposite from Aqueous Solutions: A Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Study. Molecules. 2021; 26(8):2241. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26082241

Chicago/Turabian Style

Foroutan, Rauf, Seyed J. Peighambardoust, Seyed H. Peighambardoust, Mirian Pateiro, and Jose M. Lorenzo. 2021. "Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye Using Activated Carbon of Lemon Wood and Activated Carbon/Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanocomposite from Aqueous Solutions: A Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Study" Molecules 26, no. 8: 2241. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules26082241

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop