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Molecules, Volume 27, Issue 3 (February-1 2022) – 567 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The crystal structure of the intermetallic compound Mg3−xGa1+xIr (x = 0.05) represents a new structure type. The composition and atomic arrangement in this substance do not follow the 8–N rule due to the lack of valence electrons. Based on chemical bonding analysis in positional space, it is shown, that the title compound reveals a polycationic–polyanionic organization. Compared to other known intermetallic substances with this kind of bonding pattern, both the polyanion and the polyanion are remarkably complex. Mg3−xGa1+xIr is an example of how the organization of intermetallic substances (e.g., the formation of polyanions and polycations) can be understood by extending the principles of 8–N compounds to electron-deficient materials with multi-atomic bonding. View this paper
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Article
Enhanced Sunscreen Effects via Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly of Chitosan/Sodium Alginate/Calcium Chloride/EHA
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1148; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031148 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 618
Abstract
The sunscreen nanocapsules were successfully synthesized by the way of layer-by-layer self-assembly using charged droplets (prepared by emulsification of LAD-30, Tween-80 and EHA (2-Ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate)) as templates. Chitosan/sodium alginate/calcium chloride were selected as wall materials to wrap EHA. The emulsions with the ratio of [...] Read more.
The sunscreen nanocapsules were successfully synthesized by the way of layer-by-layer self-assembly using charged droplets (prepared by emulsification of LAD-30, Tween-80 and EHA (2-Ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate)) as templates. Chitosan/sodium alginate/calcium chloride were selected as wall materials to wrap EHA. The emulsions with the ratio of Tween-80 to EHA (1:1) were stable. A stable NEI negative emulsion can be obtained when the ratio of Tween-80 and LAD-30 was 9:1. Chitosan solutions (50 kDa, 0.25 mg/mL) and sodium alginate solutions (0.5 mg/mL) were selected to prepare nanocapsules. The nanocapsules were characterized via some physico-chemical methods. Based on the synergistic effects of the electrostatic interaction between wall materials and emulsifiers, EHA was effectively encapsulated. DLS and TEM showed that the sunscreen nanocapsules were dispersed in a spherical shape with nano-size, with the increasing number of assembly layers, the size increased from 155 nm (NEI) to 189 nm (NEII) to 201 nm (NEIII) and 205 nm after solidification. The release studies in vitro showed sustained release behavior of the nanocapsules were observed with the increase of the number of deposition layers, implying a good coating effect. The sunscreen nanocapsules could control less than 50% the release of EHA after crosslinking of calcium chloride and sodium alginate, which also could effectively avoid the stimulation of the sun protection agent on the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Systems Loaded with Natural Bioactive Compounds)
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Review
Alpha B-Crystallin in Muscle Disease Prevention: The Role of Physical Activity
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031147 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 542
Abstract
HSPB5 or alpha B-crystallin (CRYAB), originally identified as lens protein, is one of the most widespread and represented of the human small heat shock proteins (sHSPs). It is greatly expressed in tissue with high rates of oxidative metabolism, such as skeletal and cardiac [...] Read more.
HSPB5 or alpha B-crystallin (CRYAB), originally identified as lens protein, is one of the most widespread and represented of the human small heat shock proteins (sHSPs). It is greatly expressed in tissue with high rates of oxidative metabolism, such as skeletal and cardiac muscles, where HSPB5 dysfunction is associated with a plethora of human diseases. Since HSPB5 has a major role in protecting muscle tissues from the alterations of protein stability (i.e., microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filament components), it is not surprising that this sHSP is specifically modulated by exercise. Considering the robust content and the protective function of HSPB5 in striated muscle tissues, as well as its specific response to muscle contraction, it is then realistic to predict a specific role for exercise-induced modulation of HSPB5 in the prevention of muscle diseases caused by protein misfolding. After offering an overview of the current knowledge on HSPB5 structure and function in muscle, this review aims to introduce the reader to the capacity that different exercise modalities have to induce and/or activate HSPB5 to levels sufficient to confer protection, with the potential to prevent or delay skeletal and cardiac muscle disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecules Medicinal Chemistry Reviews)
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Article
Flavonoids: Antiplatelet Effect as Inhibitors of COX-1
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031146 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 480
Abstract
Flavonoids are compounds with a benzopyranic structure that exhibits multiple pharmacological activities. They are known for their venotonic activity, but their mechanism of action remains unclear. It is thought that, as this mechanism is mediated by prostaglandins, these compounds may interfere with the [...] Read more.
Flavonoids are compounds with a benzopyranic structure that exhibits multiple pharmacological activities. They are known for their venotonic activity, but their mechanism of action remains unclear. It is thought that, as this mechanism is mediated by prostaglandins, these compounds may interfere with the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade. These assays are designed to measure the antiplatelet aggregation capacity of quercetin, rutin, diosmetin, diosmin, and hidrosmin, as well as to evaluate a potential structure−activity ratio. In this paper, several studies on platelet aggregation at different concentrations (from 0.33 mM to 1.5 mM) of different flavone compounds are conducted, measuring platelet aggregation by impedance aggregometry, and the cyclooxygenase (COX) activity by metabolites generated, including the activity of the pure recombinant enzyme in the presence of these polyphenols. The results obtained showed that quercetin and diosmetin aglycones have a greater antiplatelet effect and inhibit the COX enzyme activity to a greater extent than their heterosides; however, the fact that greater inhibition of the pure recombinant enzyme was achieved by heterosides suggests that these compounds may have difficulty in crossing biological membranes. In any case, in view of the results obtained, it can be concluded that flavonoids could be useful as coadjuvants in the treatment of cardiovascular pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavonoids and Their Disease Prevention and Treatment Potential 2021)
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Article
Core Shell Nanostructure: Impregnated Activated Carbon as Adsorbent for Hydrogen Sulfide Adsorption
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031145 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 530
Abstract
This study focuses on the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the performance of core shell nanostructure adsorbent for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) capture. Commercial coconut shell activated carbon (CAC) and commercial mixed gas of 5000 ppm H2S balanced N2 [...] Read more.
This study focuses on the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the performance of core shell nanostructure adsorbent for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) capture. Commercial coconut shell activated carbon (CAC) and commercial mixed gas of 5000 ppm H2S balanced N2 were used. With different preparation techniques, the CAC was modified by core shell impregnation with zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium oxide (TiO2), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and zinc acetate (ZnAC2). The core structure was prepared with CAC impregnated by single chemical and double chemical labelled with ZnAC2-CAC (single chemical), ZnAC2/KOH-CAC, ZnAC2/ZnO-CAC, and ZnAC2/TiO2-CAC. Then, the prepared core was layered either with KOH, TiO2, NH3, or TEOS for the shell. The synthesized adsorbents were characterized in physical and chemical characterization through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyzers. Operation of the adsorber column takes place at ambient temperature, with absolute pressure at 1.5 bar. The H2S gas was fed into the column at 5.5 L/min and the loaded adsorbents were 150 g. The performance of synthesized adsorbent was analyzed through the adsorbent’s capability in capturing H2S gas. Based on the results, ZnAc2/ZnO/CAC_WOS shows a better adsorption capacity with 1.17 mg H2S/g and a 53% increment compared to raw CAC. However, the degradation of the adsorbents was higher compared to ZnAc2/ZnO/CAC_OS and to ZnAc2/ZnO/CAC_WS ZnAc2/ZnO/CAC_OS. The presence of silica as a shell has potentially increased the adsorbent’s stability in several cycles of adsorption-desorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials for Sustainable Energy and Chemical Processes)
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Article
Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins and Bamboo Leaf Flavonoids Improve the Quality of Bull Semen Cryopreservation
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031144 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 435
Abstract
It is important to inhibit oxidative stress to maintain sperm motility during cryopreservation. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of supplementing oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) and bamboo leaf flavonoids (BLF) or their combination as an extender for Simmental bull semen freezing. [...] Read more.
It is important to inhibit oxidative stress to maintain sperm motility during cryopreservation. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of supplementing oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) and bamboo leaf flavonoids (BLF) or their combination as an extender for Simmental bull semen freezing. OPC, BLF, or their combination were added to the frozen diluent of bovine semen. Afterwards, computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), detection of membrane functionality, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial integrity, CAT, SOD, GSH-PX, MDA, and ROS were conducted. The results showed that adding 50 mg/L OPC or 4 mg/L BLF could improve the quality of frozen sperm. Compared with 50 mg/L OPC alone, the combination of 50mg/L OPC and 2 mg/L BLF significantly increased the kinematic parameters of sperm, and sperm CAT, GSH-PX and SOD levels (p < 0.05), whereas the MDA of sperm was decreased (p < 0.05). These results indicated that compared to the addition of 50 mg/L OPC alone, a combination of 50 mg/L OPC and 2 mg/L BLF could further improve the quality of frozen semen. The results could provide theoretical data support for the development of a new protective agent and are significant for the cryopreservation of bovine semen in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry)
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Article
Extrusion Cooking Effect on Carbohydrate Fraction in Novel Gluten-Free Flours Based on Chickpea and Rice
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1143; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031143 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 605
Abstract
Extrusion cooking allows the development of value-added products from pulses, such as gluten-free snacks with added functional properties. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the changes induced by the extrusion process on the carbohydrate fraction (total carbohydrates, soluble sugars and [...] Read more.
Extrusion cooking allows the development of value-added products from pulses, such as gluten-free snacks with added functional properties. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the changes induced by the extrusion process on the carbohydrate fraction (total carbohydrates, soluble sugars and oligosaccharides, dietary fiber, and arabinoxylans) of novel flour formulations based on chickpeas and rice enriched with different dietary fiber sources. Moreover, the influence of the addition of fiber-rich ingredients, such as Fibersol® and passion fruit, on the analyzed compounds was also evaluated. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar found in analyzed formulations, and raffinose was the prevalent oligosaccharide, followed by stachyose. The content of total α-galactosides tended to be higher after extrusion cooking. As a consequence of the extrusion treatment, the content of total and soluble dietary fiber was statistically increased in most of the analyzed samples. In general, no significant changes were observed in total arabinoxylan content as a consequence of the extrusion process, while the content of water-soluble arabinoxylans was significantly increased in extruded formulations. It was observed that the content of total available carbohydrates, stachyose, and water-soluble arabinoxylans were significantly influenced by the addition of passion fruit, Fibersol®, and both. The incorporation of these ingredients in gluten-free formulations based on chickpeas and rice allows one to obtain suitable functional formulations for the development of innovative, gluten-free, extruded snack-type products, which could be an interesting alternative for people with celiac disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Foods Ingredients as Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals)
Review
Anti-Inflammatory and Immunoregulatory Action of Sesquiterpene Lactones
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031142 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 498
Abstract
Sesquiterpene lactones (SL), characterized by their high prevalence in the Asteraceae family, are one of the major groups of secondary metabolites found in plants. Researchers from distinct research fields, including pharmacology, medicine, and agriculture, are interested in their biological potential. With new SL [...] Read more.
Sesquiterpene lactones (SL), characterized by their high prevalence in the Asteraceae family, are one of the major groups of secondary metabolites found in plants. Researchers from distinct research fields, including pharmacology, medicine, and agriculture, are interested in their biological potential. With new SL discovered in the last years, new biological activities have been tested, different action mechanisms (synergistic and/or antagonistic effects), as well as molecular structure–activity relationships described. The review identifies the main sesquiterpene lactones with interconnections between immune responses and anti-inflammatory actions, within different cellular models as well in in vivo studies. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability, as well as molecular structure–activity relationships are addressed. Additionally, plant metabolic engineering, and the impact of sesquiterpene lactone extraction methodologies are presented, with the perspective of biological activity enhancement. Sesquiterpene lactones derivatives are also addressed. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of sesquiterpene lactones within immune and inflammatory activities, highlighting trends and opportunities for their pharmaceutical/clinical use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecules Medicinal Chemistry Reviews)
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Review
A Review of Microalgae- and Cyanobacteria-Based Biodegradation of Organic Pollutants
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031141 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 802
Abstract
This review proposes a new bioremediation method based on the diverse functionalities of algae. A greenway for cleansing wastewater is more ecologically friendly and environmentally sustainable than prior methods with other bacteria. New bioremediation technology employing algae and cyanobacteria for the removal of [...] Read more.
This review proposes a new bioremediation method based on the diverse functionalities of algae. A greenway for cleansing wastewater is more ecologically friendly and environmentally sustainable than prior methods with other bacteria. New bioremediation technology employing algae and cyanobacteria for the removal of a wide range of organic contaminants is reasonable and has great potential. The prevalence of organic contaminants in aquatic habitats may endanger the health and well-being of several marine creatures. Agriculture, industry, and household trash are just a few of the human-caused sources of organic pollutants that contaminate waterways around the world. Before wastewater can be released into waterways, it must be cleaned. Algae-based wastewater treatment systems are becoming increasingly popular because of their environmental sustainability and lack of secondary pollutants. According to the kind of pollutant, the physicochemical properties of wastewater, and the algal species, algae and cyanobacteria can absorb and accumulate a wide spectrum of organic pollutants at different rates. In addition, phytoremediation is a cost-effective alternative to conventional treatments for degrading organic contaminants. Phycoremediationally produced algal biomass may also be an important part of the bioenergy value chain. This article focuses on microalgae and cyanobacteria species, which may remove many organic contaminants from water systems. Full article
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Article
Antioxidant Potential and Enhancement of Bioactive Metabolite Production in In Vitro Cultures of Scutellaria lateriflora L. by Biotechnological Methods
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031140 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 482
Abstract
Studies carried out using three different in vitro assays and a biological setting (Escherichia coil) demonstrated the antioxidant activity of Scutellaria lateriflora microshoot extract. Moreover, the extract exhibited no toxicity in a brine shrimp lethality bioassay. These results indicated that microshoots [...] Read more.
Studies carried out using three different in vitro assays and a biological setting (Escherichia coil) demonstrated the antioxidant activity of Scutellaria lateriflora microshoot extract. Moreover, the extract exhibited no toxicity in a brine shrimp lethality bioassay. These results indicated that microshoots are a rich, safe source of antioxidants, which encouraged us to enhance their production in vitro. In agar and agitated cultures, two biotechnological strategies were applied: feeding the cultures with the biogenetic precursors of the phenolics—phenylalanine and tyrosine, and eliciting them with methyl jasmonate. Specific Scutellaria flavonoids and verbascoside were analysed by HPLC. Feeding with precursors (1 g/L) in agar cultures decreased the production of the metabolites. In agitated cultures, different concentrations of precursors (1.0–2.5 g/L) and the elicitor (10; 50; 100 µM) were tested. Additionally, parallel feeding with the precursor and elicitor in a concentration of 50 µM were applied. The best strategy for total flavonoid and verbascoside production was phenylalanine feeding (1.5 g/L), max. 3765 and 475 mg/100 g DW, respectively, after 7 days. This is the first report documenting the high antioxidant production in S. lateriflora microshoots after feeding with phenylalanine. Moreover, for the first time, bioreactor cultures were successfully maintained, obtaining attractive results (max. total flavonoid content 2348 and verbascoside 485 mg/100 g DW). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Natural Products II)
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Article
A Comprehensive Investigation of the Structural, Thermal, and Biological Properties of Fully Randomized Biomedical Polyesters Synthesized with a Nontoxic Bismuth(III) Catalyst
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031139 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Aliphatic polyesters are the most common type of biodegradable synthetic polymer used in many pharmaceutical applications nowadays. This report describes the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of l-lactide (L-LA), ε-caprolactone (CL) and glycolide (Gly) in the presence of a simple, inexpensive and convenient PEG200-BiOct [...] Read more.
Aliphatic polyesters are the most common type of biodegradable synthetic polymer used in many pharmaceutical applications nowadays. This report describes the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of l-lactide (L-LA), ε-caprolactone (CL) and glycolide (Gly) in the presence of a simple, inexpensive and convenient PEG200-BiOct3 catalytic system. The chemical structures of the obtained copolymers were characterized by 1H- or 13C-NMR. GPC was used to estimate the average molecular weight of the resulting polyesters, whereas TGA and DSC were employed to determine the thermal properties of polymeric products. The effects of temperature, reaction time, and catalyst content on the polymerization process were investigated. Importantly, the obtained polyesters were not cyto- or genotoxic, which is significant in terms of the potential for medical applications (e.g., for drug delivery systems). As a result of transesterification, the copolymers obtained had a random distribution of comonomer units along the polymer chain. The thermal analysis indicated an amorphous nature of poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLACL) and a low degree of crystallinity of poly(ε-caprolactone-co-glycolide) (PCLGA, Xc = 15.1%), in accordance with the microstructures with random distributions and short sequences of comonomer units (l = 1.02–2.82). Significant differences in reactivity were observed among comonomers, confirming preferential ring opening of L-LA during the copolymerization process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymers in Biomedical Applications)
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Article
The Biological Fate of Pharmaceutical Excipient β-Cyclodextrin: Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Excretion, and Metabolism of β-Cyclodextrin in Rats
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031138 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
β-cyclodextrin has a unique annular hollow ultrastructure that allows encapsulation of various poorly water-soluble drugs in the resulting cavity, thereby increasing drug stability. As a bioactive molecule, the metabolism of β-cyclodextrin is mainly completed by the flora in the colon, which can interact [...] Read more.
β-cyclodextrin has a unique annular hollow ultrastructure that allows encapsulation of various poorly water-soluble drugs in the resulting cavity, thereby increasing drug stability. As a bioactive molecule, the metabolism of β-cyclodextrin is mainly completed by the flora in the colon, which can interact with API. In this study, understanding the in vivo fate of β-cyclodextrin, a LC-MS/MS method was developed to facilitate simultaneous quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical excipient β-cyclodextrin and API dextromethorphan hydrobromide. The established method had been effectively used to study the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolism of β-cyclodextrin after oral administration in rats. Results showed that β-cyclodextrin was almost wholly removed from rat plasma within 36 h, and high concentrations of β-cyclodextrin distributed hastily to organs with increased blood flow velocities such as the spleen, liver, and kidney after administration. The excretion of intact β-cyclodextrin to urine and feces was lower than the administration dose. It can be speculated that β-cyclodextrin metabolized to maltodextrin, which was further metabolized, absorbed, and eventually discharged in the form of CO2 and H2O. Results proved that β-cyclodextrin, with relative low accumulation in the body, had good safety. The results will assist further study of the design and safety evaluation of adjuvant β-cyclodextrin and promote its clinical development. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Fast and Sensitive Proteome Profiling of FF and FFPE Kidney Patient Tissues
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031137 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 538
Abstract
The application of proteomics to fresh frozen (FF) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissues is an important development spurred on by requests from stakeholder groups in clinical fields. One objective is to complement current diagnostic methods with new specific molecular information. An important [...] Read more.
The application of proteomics to fresh frozen (FF) and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissues is an important development spurred on by requests from stakeholder groups in clinical fields. One objective is to complement current diagnostic methods with new specific molecular information. An important goal is to achieve adequate and consistent protein recovery across and within large-scale studies. Here, we describe development of several protocols incorporating mass spectrometry compatible detergents, including Rapigest, PPS, and ProteaseMax. Methods were applied on 4 and 15 μm thick FF tissues, and 4 μm thick FFPE tissues. We evaluated sensitivity and repeatability of the methods and found that the protocol containing Rapigest enabled detection of 630 proteins from FF tissue of 1 mm2 and 15 μm thick, whereas 498 and 297 proteins were detected with the protocols containing ProteaseMax and PPS, respectively. Surprisingly, PPS-containing buffer showed good extraction of the proteins from 4 μm thick FFPE tissue with the average of 270 protein identifications (1 mm2), similar to the results on 4 μm thick FF. Moreover, we found that temperature increases during incubation with urea on 4 μm thick FF tissue revealed a decrease in the number of identified proteins and increase in the number of the carbamylated peptides. Full article
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Article
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Chemically-Characterized Essential Oil from Artemisia aragonensis Lam. against Drug-Resistant Microbes
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031136 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 712
Abstract
This study investigated the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracted from Artemisia aragonensis Lam. (EOA). Hydrodistillation was employed to extract EOA. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses (GC-MS) were used to determine the [...] Read more.
This study investigated the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of essential oil extracted from Artemisia aragonensis Lam. (EOA). Hydrodistillation was employed to extract EOA. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses (GC-MS) were used to determine the phytochemical composition of EOA. Antioxidant potential was examined in vitro by use of three tests: 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), ferric reducing activity power (FRAP) and total antioxidant capacity assay (TAC). Agar diffusion and microdilution bioassays were used to assess antimicrobial activity. GC/MS and GC-FID detected 34 constituents in the studied EOA. The major component was Camphor (24.97%) followed by Borneol (13.20%), 1,8 Cineol (10.88%), and Artemisia alcohol (10.20%). EOA exhibited significant antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH and FRAP assays, with IC50 and EC50 values of 0.034 ± 0.004 and 0.118 ± 0.008 mg/mL, respectively. EOA exhibited total antioxidant capacity of 7.299 ± 1.774 mg EAA/g. EOA exhibited potent antibacterial activity as judged by the low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against selected clinically-important pathogenic bacteria. MIC values of 6.568 ± 1.033, 5.971 ± 1.033, 7.164 ± 0.0 and 5.375 ± 0.0 μg/mL were observed against S. aureus, B. subtills, E. coli 97 and E. coli 57, respectively. EOA displayed significant antifungal activity against four strains of fungi: F. oxysporum, C. albicans, A. flavus and A. niger with values of 21.50 ± 0.43, 5.31 ± 0.10, 21.50 ± 0.46 and 5.30 ± 0.036 μg/mL, respectively. The results of the current study highlight the importance of EOA as an alternative source of natural antioxidant and antibacterial drugs to combat antibiotic-resistant microbes and free radicals implicated in the inflammatory responses accompanying microbial infection. Full article
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Review
π–π Stacking Interaction of Metal Phenoxyl Radical Complexes
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031135 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 413
Abstract
π–π stacking interaction is well-known to be one of the weak interactions. Its importance in the stabilization of protein structures and functionalization has been reported for various systems. We have focused on a single copper oxidase, galactose oxidase, which has the π–π stacking [...] Read more.
π–π stacking interaction is well-known to be one of the weak interactions. Its importance in the stabilization of protein structures and functionalization has been reported for various systems. We have focused on a single copper oxidase, galactose oxidase, which has the π–π stacking interaction of the alkylthio-substituted phenoxyl radical with the indole ring of the proximal tryptophan residue and catalyzes primary alcohol oxidation to give the corresponding aldehyde. This stacking interaction has been considered to stabilize the alkylthio-phenoxyl radical, but further details of the interaction are still unclear. In this review, we discuss the effect of the π–π stacking interaction of the alkylthio-substituted phenoxyl radical with an indole ring. Full article
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Review
State of the Art on Green Route Synthesis of Gold/Silver Bimetallic Nanoparticles
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031134 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
Recently, bimetallic nanoparticles (BMNPs) blending the properties of two metals in one nanostructured system have generated enormous interest due to their potential applications in various fields including biosensing, imaging, nanomedicine, and catalysis. BMNPs have been developed later with respect to the monometallic nanoparticles [...] Read more.
Recently, bimetallic nanoparticles (BMNPs) blending the properties of two metals in one nanostructured system have generated enormous interest due to their potential applications in various fields including biosensing, imaging, nanomedicine, and catalysis. BMNPs have been developed later with respect to the monometallic nanoparticles (MNPs) and their physicochemical and biological properties have not yet been comprehensively explored. The manuscript aims at collecting the main design criteria used to synthetize BMNPs focusing on green route synthesis. The influence of experimental parameters such as temperature, time, reagent concentrations, capping agents on the particle growth and colloidal stability are examined. Finally, an overview of their nanotechnological applications and biological profile are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers in Green Chemistry)
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Article
Fluorogenic Detection of Human Serum Albumin Using Curcumin-Capped Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031133 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 435
Abstract
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with rhodamine B and capped with curcumin are used for the selective and sensitive fluorogenic detection of human serum albumin (HSA). The sensing mesoporous silica nanoparticles are loaded with rhodamine B, decorated with aminopropyl moieties and capped with curcumin. [...] Read more.
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with rhodamine B and capped with curcumin are used for the selective and sensitive fluorogenic detection of human serum albumin (HSA). The sensing mesoporous silica nanoparticles are loaded with rhodamine B, decorated with aminopropyl moieties and capped with curcumin. The nanoparticles selectively release the rhodamine B cargo in the presence of HSA. A limit of detection for HSA of 0.1 mg/mL in PBS (pH 7.4)-acetonitrile 95:5 v/v was found, and the sensing nanoparticles were used to detect HSA in spiked synthetic urine samples. Full article
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Article
Supercritical CO2 Plant Extracts Show Antifungal Activities against Crop-Borne Fungi
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031132 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 485
Abstract
Fungal infections of cultivated food crops result in extensive losses of crops at the global level, while resistance to antifungal agents continues to grow. Supercritical fluid extraction using CO2 (SFE-CO2) has gained attention as an environmentally well-accepted extraction method, as [...] Read more.
Fungal infections of cultivated food crops result in extensive losses of crops at the global level, while resistance to antifungal agents continues to grow. Supercritical fluid extraction using CO2 (SFE-CO2) has gained attention as an environmentally well-accepted extraction method, as CO2 is a non-toxic, inert and available solvent, and the extracts obtained are, chemically, of greater or different complexities compared to those of conventional extracts. The SFE-CO2 extracts of Achillea millefolium, Calendula officinalis, Chamomilla recutita, Helichrysum arenarium, Humulus lupulus, Taraxacum officinale, Juniperus communis, Hypericum perforatum, Nepeta cataria, Crataegus sp. and Sambucus nigra were studied in terms of their compositions and antifungal activities against the wheat- and buckwheat-borne fungi Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium poae. The C. recutita and H. arenarium extracts were the most efficacious, and these inhibited the growth of most of the fungi by 80% to 100%. Among the fungal species, B. cinerea was the most susceptible to the treatments with the SFE-CO2 extracts, while Fusarium spp. were the least. This study shows that some of these SFE-CO2 extracts have promising potential for use as antifungal agents for selected crop-borne fungi. Full article
Review
Beta-Lactoglobulin as a Model Food Protein: How to Promote, Prevent, and Exploit Its Unfolding Processes
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031131 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Bovine milk beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) is a small whey protein that is a common ingredient in many foods. Many of the properties of BLG relevant to the food industry are related to its unfolding processes induced by physical or chemical treatments. Unfolding occurs through [...] Read more.
Bovine milk beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) is a small whey protein that is a common ingredient in many foods. Many of the properties of BLG relevant to the food industry are related to its unfolding processes induced by physical or chemical treatments. Unfolding occurs through a number of individual steps, generating transient intermediates through reversible and irreversible modifications. The rate of formation of these intermediates and of their further evolution into different structures often dictates the outcome of a given process. This report addresses the main structural features of the BLG unfolding intermediates under conditions that may facilitate or impair their formation in response to chemical or physical denaturing agents. In consideration of the short lifespan of the transient species generated upon unfolding, this review also discusses how various methodological approaches may be adapted in exploring the process-dependent structural modifications of BLG from a kinetic and/or a thermodynamic standpoint. Some of the conceptual and methodological approaches presented and discussed in this review can provide hints for improving the understanding of transient conformers formation by proteins present in other food systems, as well as when other physical or chemical denaturing agents are acting on proteins much different from BLG in complex food systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Proteins)
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Article
Co3Gd4 Cage as Magnetic Refrigerant and Co3Dy3 Cage Showing Slow Relaxation of Magnetisation
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031130 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Two structurally dissimilar 3d-4f cages having the formulae [(CoIII)3Gd43-OH)2(CO3) (O2CtBu)11(teaH)3]·5H2O (1) and [(CoIII)3Dy3 [...] Read more.
Two structurally dissimilar 3d-4f cages having the formulae [(CoIII)3Gd43-OH)2(CO3) (O2CtBu)11(teaH)3]·5H2O (1) and [(CoIII)3Dy33-OH)4(O2CtBu)6(teaH)3]·(NO3)2·H2O (2) have been isolated under similar reaction conditions and stoichiometry of the reactants. The most important factor for structural diversity seems to be the incorporation of one μ3-carbonate anion in 1 and not in 2. Co atoms are in a +3 oxidation state in both complexes, as shown by the Bond Valence Sum (BVS) calculations and bond lengths, and as further supported by magnetic measurements. Co3Gd4 displays a significant magnetocaloric effect (−∆Sm = 25.67 J kg−1 K−1), and Co3Dy3 shows a single molecule magnet (SMM) behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Organic Polymers: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications)
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Article
Magnetic and Luminescence Properties of 8-Coordinate Holmium(III) Complexes Containing 4,4,4-Trifluoro-1-Phenyl- and 1-(Naphthalen-2-yl)-1,3-Butanedionates
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27031129 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 540
Abstract
A new series of mononuclear Ho3+ complexes derived from the β-diketonate anions: 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedioneate (btfa) and 4,4,4-trifuoro-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1,3-butanedionate (ntfa) have been synthesized, [Ho(btfa)3(H2O)2] (1a), [Ho(ntfa)3(MeOH)2] (1b), [...] Read more.
A new series of mononuclear Ho3+ complexes derived from the β-diketonate anions: 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedioneate (btfa) and 4,4,4-trifuoro-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1,3-butanedionate (ntfa) have been synthesized, [Ho(btfa)3(H2O)2] (1a), [Ho(ntfa)3(MeOH)2] (1b), (1), [Ho(btfa)3(phen)] (2), [Ho(btfa)3(bipy)] (3), [Ho(btfa)3(di-tbubipy)] (4), [Ho(ntfa)3(Me2bipy)] (5), and [Ho(ntfa)3(bipy)] (6), where phen is 1,10-phenantroline, bipy is 2,2′-bipyridyl, di-tbubipy is 4,4′-di-tert-butyl-2,2′-bipyridyl, and Me2bipy is 4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridyl. These compounds have been characterized by elemental microanalysis and infrared spectroscopy as well as single-crystal X-ray difraction for 26. The central Ho3+ ions in these compounds display coordination number 8. The luminescence-emission properties of the pyridyl adducts 26 display a strong characteristic band in the visible region at 661 nm and a series of bands in the NIR region (excitation wavelengths (λex) of 367 nm for 24 and 380 nm for 5 and 6). The magnetic properties of the complexes revealed magnetically uncoupled Ho3+ compounds with no field-induced, single-molecule magnet (SMMs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Structures of Metal Complexes)
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Review
Uncommon Terpenoids from Salvia Species: Chemistry, Biosynthesis and Biological Activities
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031128 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 787
Abstract
The search for new bioactive compounds from plant sources has been and continues to be one of the most important fields of research in drug discovery. However, Natural Products research has continuously evolved, and more and more has gained a multidisciplinary character. Despite [...] Read more.
The search for new bioactive compounds from plant sources has been and continues to be one of the most important fields of research in drug discovery. However, Natural Products research has continuously evolved, and more and more has gained a multidisciplinary character. Despite new developments of methodologies and concepts, one intriguing aspect still persists, i.e., different species belonging to the same genus can produce different secondary metabolites, whereas taxonomically different genera can produce the same compounds. The genus Salvia L. (Family Lamiaceae) comprises myriad distinct medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine worldwide that show different pharmacological activities due to the presence of a variety of interesting specialized metabolites, including mono-, sesqui-, di-, sester-, tri-, tetra-, and higher terpenoids as well as phenylpropanoids, phenolic acid derivatives, lignans, flavonoids, and alkaloids. We herein summarize the research progress on some uncommon terpenoids, isolated from members of the genus Salvia, which are well recognized for their potential pharmacological activities. This review also provides a current knowledge on the biosynthesis and occurrence of some interesting phytochemicals from Salvia species, viz. C23-terpenoids, sesterterpenoids (C25), dammarane triterpenoids (C30), and uncommon triterpenoids (C20+C10). The study was carried out by searching various scientific databases, including Elsevier, ACS publications, Taylor and Francis, Wiley Online Library, MDPI, Springer, Thieme, and ProQuest. Therefore, 106 uncommon terpenoids were identified and summarized. Some of these compounds possessed a variety of pharmacological properties, such as antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, cytotoxic and tubulin tyrosine ligase inhibitory activities. Due to the lack of pharmacological information for the presented compounds gathered from previous studies, biological investigation of these compounds should be reinvestigated. Full article
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Article
α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Okara Broth Started with the Strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SY07
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031127 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 422
Abstract
In this work, a new strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SY07 isolated from a traditional fermented soybean food was reported to possess remarkable α-glucosidase inhibitor-producing ability. Different culture media were applied for the proliferation of B. amyloliquefaciens SY07, and it was found that fermented [...] Read more.
In this work, a new strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SY07 isolated from a traditional fermented soybean food was reported to possess remarkable α-glucosidase inhibitor-producing ability. Different culture media were applied for the proliferation of B. amyloliquefaciens SY07, and it was found that fermented okara broth presented the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, while Luria-Bertani medium showed a negative effect. The extract from fermented okara broth acted in a dose-dependent manner to inhibit α-glucosidase activity, with an IC50 value of 0.454 mg/mL, and main inhibitors in the fermentation extract presented a reversible, uncompetitive pattern according to Lineweaver–Burk plots. Moreover, 1-deoxynojirimycin, a recognized α-glucosidase inhibitor, was found in the extract. Results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens SY07 could utilize okara, a by-product from the soy processing industry, to generate α-glucosidase inhibitors effectively, and be regarded as a novel excellent microbial candidate for safe, economical production of potential functional foods or ingredients with hypoglycemic effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Applied Sciences in Functional Foods)
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Article
Synthesis of Terpineol from Alpha-Pinene Catalyzed by α-Hydroxy Acids
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031126 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 464
Abstract
We report the use of five alpha-hydroxy acids (citric, tartaric, mandelic, lactic and glycolic acids) as catalysts in the synthesis of terpineol from alpha-pinene. The study found that the hydration rate of pinene was slow when only catalyzed by alpha-hydroxyl acids. Ternary composite [...] Read more.
We report the use of five alpha-hydroxy acids (citric, tartaric, mandelic, lactic and glycolic acids) as catalysts in the synthesis of terpineol from alpha-pinene. The study found that the hydration rate of pinene was slow when only catalyzed by alpha-hydroxyl acids. Ternary composite catalysts, composed of AHAs, phosphoric acid, and acetic acid, had a good catalytic performance. The reaction step was hydrolysis of the intermediate terpinyl acetate, which yielded terpineol. The optimal reaction conditions were as follows: alpha-pinene, acetic acid, water, citric acid, and phosphoric acid, at a mass ratio of 1:2.5:1:(0.1–0.05):0.05, a reaction temperature of 70 °C, and a reaction time of 12–15 h. The conversion of alpha-pinene was 96%, the content of alpha-terpineol was 46.9%, and the selectivity of alpha-terpineol was 48.1%. In addition, the catalytic performance of monolayer graphene oxide and its composite catalyst with citric acid was studied, with acetic acid used as an additive. Full article
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Article
Characterizing Key Volatile Pollutants Emitted from Adhesives by Chemical Compositions, Odor Contributions and Health Risks
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031125 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 408
Abstract
As one of the major sources of volatile pollutants in indoor air, gaseous emissions from adhesives during interior decoration have attracted increasing concern. Identifying major volatile pollutants and the risk in adhesive gaseous emissions is of great significance, but remains rarely reported. In [...] Read more.
As one of the major sources of volatile pollutants in indoor air, gaseous emissions from adhesives during interior decoration have attracted increasing concern. Identifying major volatile pollutants and the risk in adhesive gaseous emissions is of great significance, but remains rarely reported. In the present research, we assessed the major volatile pollutants emitted from white emulsion adhesive and silicone adhesive samples (n = 30) from three aspects: chemical composition, odor and health risk contributions. The results showed that a total of 21 volatile pollutants were detected. Significantly, xylene was the most concentrated compound from white emulsion adhesives, accounting for 45.51% of the total concentrations. Butanone oxime was the most concentrated compound in silicone adhesives, accounting for 69.86% of the total concentrations. The trends in odor concentration (evaluated by the odor activity value method) over time were well correlated with the total chemical concentrations. Xylene (58.00%) and butanone oxime (76.75%) showed the highest odor contribution, respectively. Moreover, from an integrated perspective of chemical emissions, odor and health risk contributions, xylene, ethylbenzene, ethyl acetate and benzene were identified as the key volatile pollutants emitted from the white emulsion adhesives, while butanone oxime, butanone, and ethanol were the key volatile pollutants emitted from the silicone adhesives. This study not only identified the key volatile pollutants but also provided characteristics of odor and health risks of gas emitted from adhesives. Full article
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Article
Incorporation of the Dry Blossom Flour of Sambucus nigra L. in the Production of Sponge Cakes
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031124 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 526
Abstract
The present study aims to develop recipe compositions and technology for producing sponge cakes from wholemeal flour, partially replaced with a functional plant component dry blossom flour of Sambucus nigra L. Three designs of sponge cakes with 5, 10, and 15% content of [...] Read more.
The present study aims to develop recipe compositions and technology for producing sponge cakes from wholemeal flour, partially replaced with a functional plant component dry blossom flour of Sambucus nigra L. Three designs of sponge cakes with 5, 10, and 15% content of flour of Sambucus nigra L. corrected up to 100% with whole-grain oat flour were studied. Their characteristics were compared with sponge cakes of 100% wheat flour/control. The obtained new products were characterized by reduced carbohydrates, increased content of dietary fiber, and preserved volume compared to the control. The physicochemical parameters of sponge cake and marshmallows with different concentrations of dry flowers of Sambucus nigra L. included in them differed from the control with lower water absorption, pH, and moisture, while having a higher relative mass and ash content and retaining the original size. Pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., and Staphylococcus aureus, and common coliforms were not detected in the control and experimental samples when determining the microbiological parameters. Therefore, the developed formulations are an excellent alternative to wheat flour, significantly improving some nutritional characteristics such as smell, taste, dietary fiber, and lower carbohydrate content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Characteristics and Functional Properties in Agri-Food)
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Article
Characterization of Collagen from Three Genetic Lines (Gray, Red and F1) of Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia) Skin in Young and Old Adults
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031123 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 663
Abstract
From tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farming, the by-products have been identified as a source of collagen that could be used for the development of dermocosmetics or pharmaceutical products. However, the characteristics of collagen related to a specific strain or culture must be [...] Read more.
From tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farming, the by-products have been identified as a source of collagen that could be used for the development of dermocosmetics or pharmaceutical products. However, the characteristics of collagen related to a specific strain or culture must be well defined prior to its application. Collagen was extracted from the skin of three strains of tilapia: red YY males (YY: two Y-type sex chromosomes), XX gray females, and the F1: offspring of crossing red YY males with XX gray females; at different ages in the adult phase, using acetic acid and pepsin enzyme. The characteristics of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC) were shown by SDS-PAGE band profiles to be similar to bovine collagen type I (SIGMA), the PSC of gray tilapia being more fragile to temperature changes, consistent with the results of fractional viscosity. The characteristics of the F1 progeny were prioritized for being a commercially productive and sustainable source for the extraction of collagen, and the ASC form, being the one with the greatest stability and advantage over PSC, of importance to our investigations, leads to a controlled digestion as in the case of peptide induction, and also in the development of natural products in the pharmaceutical and/or dermocosmetic industry. Evaluations of the triple helix structure by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and UV–visible spectroscopy give similar results between the strains: red, gray, and F1, and between ages in the adult form F1 (15, 24, and 36 months of age). Consequently, the skin of tilapia in adult form is recommended sustainably for up to 24 months of age where the collagen is obtained with the use of acetic acid without enzymatic treatment. Full article
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Article
Hf(OTf)4-Catalyzed Three-Component Synthesis of N-Carbamate-Protected β-Amino Ketones
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031122 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 374
Abstract
Hafnium(IV) triflate (Hf(OTf)4) has been identified as a potent catalyst for the direct three-component synthesis of β-carbamate ketones. This new method, featuring a low catalyst loading, fast reaction rate, and solvent-free conditions, provided facile access to a diversity of carbamate-protected Mannich [...] Read more.
Hafnium(IV) triflate (Hf(OTf)4) has been identified as a potent catalyst for the direct three-component synthesis of β-carbamate ketones. This new method, featuring a low catalyst loading, fast reaction rate, and solvent-free conditions, provided facile access to a diversity of carbamate-protected Mannich bases. A mechanistic investigation indicated that the three-component reaction proceeds via sequential aldol condensation and aza-Michael addition, but not the Mannich-type pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue How and Why to Investigate Multicomponent Reactions Mechanisms)
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Article
Functionalized Crystalline N-Trimethyltriindoles: Counterintuitive Influence of Peripheral Substituents on Their Semiconducting Properties
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031121 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 380
Abstract
Three crystalline N-trimethyltriindoles endowed with different functionalities at 3, 8 and 13 positions (either unsubstituted or with three methoxy or three acetyl groups attached) are investigated, and clear correlations between the electronic nature of the substituents and their solid-state organization, electronic properties [...] Read more.
Three crystalline N-trimethyltriindoles endowed with different functionalities at 3, 8 and 13 positions (either unsubstituted or with three methoxy or three acetyl groups attached) are investigated, and clear correlations between the electronic nature of the substituents and their solid-state organization, electronic properties and semiconductor behavior are established. The three compounds give rise to similar columnar hexagonal crystalline structures; however, the insertion of electron-donor methoxy groups results in slightly shorter stacking distances when compared with the unsubstituted derivative, whereas the insertion of electron-withdrawing acetyl groups lowers the crystallinity of the system. Functionalization significantly affects hole mobilities with the triacetyl derivative showing the lowest mobility within the series in agreement with the lower degree of order. However, attaching three methoxy groups also results in lower hole mobility values in the OFETs (0.022 vs. 0.0014 cm2 V−1 s−1) in spite of the shorter stacking distances. This counterintuitive behavior has been explained with the help of DFT calculations performed to rationalize the interplay between the intramolecular and intermolecular properties, which point to lower transfer integrals in the trimethoxy derivative due to the HOMO wave function extension over the peripheral methoxy groups. The results of this study provide useful insights into how peripheral substituents influence the fundamental charge transport parameters of chemically modified triindole platforms of fundamental importance to design new derivatives with improved semiconducting performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Functional Organic Materials: From Design to Applications)
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Article
Seasonal Chemical Evaluation of Miconia chamissois Naudin from Brazilian Savanna
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031120 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 472
Abstract
Miconia chamissois Naudin is a species from the Cerrado, which is being increasingly researched for its therapeutic potential. The aim of this study was to obtain a standardized extract and to evaluate seasonal chemical variations. Seven batches of aqueous extracts from leaves were [...] Read more.
Miconia chamissois Naudin is a species from the Cerrado, which is being increasingly researched for its therapeutic potential. The aim of this study was to obtain a standardized extract and to evaluate seasonal chemical variations. Seven batches of aqueous extracts from leaves were produced for the standardization. These extracts were evaluated for total solids, polyphenol (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC), vitexin derivative content, antioxidant activity; thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiles were generated. For the seasonal study, leaves were collected from five different periods (May 2017 to August 2018). The results were correlated with meteorological data (global radiation, temperature, and rainfall index). Using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, apigenin C-glycosides (vitexin/isovitexin) and derivatives, luteolin C-glycosides (orientin/isoorientin) and derivatives, a quercetin glycoside, miconioside B, matteucinol-7-O-β-apiofuranosyl (1 → 6) -β-glucopyranoside, and farrerol were identified. Quality parameters, including chemical marker quantification by HPLC, and biological activity, are described. In the extract standardization process, all the evaluated parameters showed low variability. The seasonality study revealed no significant correlations (p < 0.05) between TPC or TFC content and meteorological data. These results showed that it is possible to obtain extracts from M. chamissois at any time of the year without significant differences in composition. Full article
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Article
Effects of Roxadustat on Erythropoietin Production in the Rat Body
Molecules 2022, 27(3), 1119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/molecules27031119 - 08 Feb 2022
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Anemia is a major complication of chronic renal failure. To treat this anemia, prolylhydroxylase domain enzyme (PHD) inhibitors as well as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been used. Although PHD inhibitors rapidly stimulate erythropoietin (Epo) production, the precise sites of Epo production following the [...] Read more.
Anemia is a major complication of chronic renal failure. To treat this anemia, prolylhydroxylase domain enzyme (PHD) inhibitors as well as erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have been used. Although PHD inhibitors rapidly stimulate erythropoietin (Epo) production, the precise sites of Epo production following the administration of these drugs have not been identified. We developed a novel method for the detection of the Epo protein that employs deglycosylation-coupled Western blotting. With protein deglycosylation, tissue Epo contents can be quantified over an extremely wide range. Using this method, we examined the effects of the PHD inhibitor, Roxadustat (ROX), and severe hypoxia on Epo production in various tissues in rats. We observed that ROX increased Epo mRNA expression in both the kidneys and liver. However, Epo protein was detected in the kidneys but not in the liver. Epo protein was also detected in the salivary glands, spleen, epididymis and ovaries. However, both PHD inhibitors (ROX) and severe hypoxia increased the Epo protein abundance only in the kidneys. These data show that, while Epo is produced in many tissues, PHD inhibitors as well as severe hypoxia regulate Epo production only in the kidneys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Protein Glycosylation)
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