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Article

Biological Screening of Newly Synthesized BIAN N-Heterocyclic Gold Carbene Complexes in Zebrafish Embryos

1
Bioproducts Research Chair, Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Chemistry, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
3
Materials Science and Technology Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, PO Box 2713, Doha, Qatar
4
Natural and Microbial Products Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo 12311, Egypt
5
Petrochemical Research Chair, Department of Chemistry, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jun Li
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(10), 24718-24731; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161024718
Received: 8 July 2015 / Revised: 1 October 2015 / Accepted: 4 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Molecular Biology)
N-Heterocyclic carbene (NHC) metal complexes possess diverse biological activities but have yet to be extensively explored as potential chemotherapeutic agents. We have previously reported the synthesis of a new class of NHC metal complexes N-heterocyclic with acetate [IPr(BIAN)AuOAc] and chloride [IPr(BIAN)AuCl] ligands. In the experiments reported herein, the zebrafish embryos were exposed to serial dilutions of each of these complexes for 10–12 h. One hundred percent mortality was observed at concentrations ≥50 µM. At sub-lethal concentrations (10–30 µM), both compounds influenced zebrafish embryonic development. However, quite diverse categories of abnormalities were found in exposed embryos with each compound. Severe brain deformation and notochord degeneration were evident in the case of [IPr(BIAN)AuOAc]. The zebrafish embryos treated with [IPr(BIAN)AuCl] exhibited stunted growth and consequently had smaller body sizes. A depletion of 30%–40% glutathione was detected in the treated embryos, which could account for one of the possible mechanism of neurotoxicity. The fact that these compounds are capable of both affecting the growth and also compromising antioxidant systems by elevating intracellular ROS production implies that they could play an important role as a new breed of therapeutic molecules. View Full-Text
Keywords: BIAN; N-heterocyclic carbenes complexes; zebrafish; oxidative stress; neurotoxicity BIAN; N-heterocyclic carbenes complexes; zebrafish; oxidative stress; neurotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Farooq, M.; Taha, N.A.; Butorac, R.R.; Evans, D.A.; Elzatahry, A.A.; Elsayed, E.A.; Wadaan, M.A.M.; Al-Deyab, S.S.; Cowley, A.H. Biological Screening of Newly Synthesized BIAN N-Heterocyclic Gold Carbene Complexes in Zebrafish Embryos. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 24718-24731. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161024718

AMA Style

Farooq M, Taha NA, Butorac RR, Evans DA, Elzatahry AA, Elsayed EA, Wadaan MAM, Al-Deyab SS, Cowley AH. Biological Screening of Newly Synthesized BIAN N-Heterocyclic Gold Carbene Complexes in Zebrafish Embryos. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(10):24718-24731. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161024718

Chicago/Turabian Style

Farooq, Muhammad, Nael A. Taha, Rachel R. Butorac, Daniel A. Evans, Ahmed A. Elzatahry, Elsayed A. Elsayed, Mohammad A.M. Wadaan, Salem S. Al-Deyab, and Alan H. Cowley 2015. "Biological Screening of Newly Synthesized BIAN N-Heterocyclic Gold Carbene Complexes in Zebrafish Embryos" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16, no. 10: 24718-24731. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161024718

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