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Article

Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity

Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Albany, CA 94710, USA
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Academic Editor: Paula Andrade
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(11), 26850-26870; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161125988
Received: 19 September 2015 / Revised: 27 October 2015 / Accepted: 2 November 2015 / Published: 10 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics 2015)
Disruption of cell wall integrity system should be an effective strategy for control of fungal pathogens. To augment the cell wall disruption efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols (carvacrol, thymol), antimycotic potency of benzaldehyde derivatives that can serve as chemosensitizing agents were evaluated against strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild type (WT), slt2Δ and bck1Δ (mutants of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase kinase, respectively, in the cell wall integrity pathway). Among fourteen compounds investigated, slt2Δ and bck1Δ showed higher susceptibility to nine benzaldehydes, compared to WT. Differential antimycotic activity of screened compounds indicated “structure-activity relationship” for targeting the cell wall integrity, where 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (2H4M) exhibited the highest antimycotic potency. The efficacy of 2H4M as an effective chemosensitizer to monoterpenoid phenols (viz., 2H4M + carvacrol or thymol) was assessed in yeasts or filamentous fungi (Aspergillus, Penicillium) according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing or Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A protocols, respectively. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory or fungicidal concentrations of the co-administered compounds. 2H4M also overcame the tolerance of two MAPK mutants (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ) of Aspergillus fumigatus to fludioxonil (phenylpyrrole fungicide). Collectively, 2H4M possesses chemosensitizing capability to magnify the efficacy of monoterpenoid phenols, which improves target-based (viz., cell wall disruption) antifungal intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimycotic; benzaldehydes; cell wall integrity; chemosensitization; filamentous fungi; monoterpenoids; mycotoxins; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; signal transduction; synergism antimycotic; benzaldehydes; cell wall integrity; chemosensitization; filamentous fungi; monoterpenoids; mycotoxins; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; signal transduction; synergism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.H.; Chan, K.L.; Mahoney, N. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 26850-26870. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161125988

AMA Style

Kim JH, Chan KL, Mahoney N. Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2015; 16(11):26850-26870. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161125988

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Jong H., Kathleen L. Chan, and Noreen Mahoney. 2015. "Augmenting the Activity of Monoterpenoid Phenols against Fungal Pathogens Using 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde that Target Cell Wall Integrity" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 16, no. 11: 26850-26870. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms161125988

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