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Article

Metabolomic Approaches to Explore Chemical Diversity of Human Breast-Milk, Formula Milk and Bovine Milk

by 1,2,†, 3,†, 3, 3, 4, 3,* and 1,2,*
1
Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092, China
2
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092, China
3
Center for Translational Medicine, Six People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China
4
Nutrition Research Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: David Arráez-Román
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17122128
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
Although many studies have been conducted on the components present in human breast milk (HM), research on the differences of chemical metabolites between HM, bovine milk (BM) and formula milk (FM) is limited. This study was to explore the chemical diversity of HM, BM and FM by metabolomic approaches. GC-TOFMS and UPLC-QTOFMS were applied to investigate the metabolic compositions in 30 HM samples, 20 FM samples and 20 BM samples. Metabolite profiling identified that most of the non-esterified fatty acids, which reflected the hydrolysis of triglycerides, were much more abundant in HM than those in FM and BM, except for palmitic acid and stearic acid. The levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates were much higher in FM and BM than those in HM. Each type of milk also showed its unique composition of free amino acids and free carbohydrates. In conclusion, higher levels of non-esterified saturated fatty acids with aliphatic tails <16 carbons, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower levels of TCA intermediates are characteristic of HM, as compared with FM and BM. The content of non-esterified fatty acids may reflect the hydrolysis of triglycerides in different milk types. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; GC-TOFMS; UPLC-QTOFMS; fatty acids; tricarboxylic acid intermediates; amino acids; carbohydrate metabolomics; GC-TOFMS; UPLC-QTOFMS; fatty acids; tricarboxylic acid intermediates; amino acids; carbohydrate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Qian, L.; Zhao, A.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, T.; Zeisel, S.H.; Jia, W.; Cai, W. Metabolomic Approaches to Explore Chemical Diversity of Human Breast-Milk, Formula Milk and Bovine Milk. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2128. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17122128

AMA Style

Qian L, Zhao A, Zhang Y, Chen T, Zeisel SH, Jia W, Cai W. Metabolomic Approaches to Explore Chemical Diversity of Human Breast-Milk, Formula Milk and Bovine Milk. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(12):2128. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17122128

Chicago/Turabian Style

Qian, Linxi, Aihua Zhao, Yinan Zhang, Tianlu Chen, Steven H. Zeisel, Wei Jia, and Wei Cai. 2016. "Metabolomic Approaches to Explore Chemical Diversity of Human Breast-Milk, Formula Milk and Bovine Milk" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17, no. 12: 2128. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17122128

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