Next Article in Journal
Expression of Castor LPAT2 Enhances Ricinoleic Acid Content at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lesquerella Seed
Next Article in Special Issue
Titanium Dioxide Particle Type and Concentration Influence the Inflammatory Response in Caco-2 Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Nucleotide Excision Repair and Vitamin D—Relevance for Skin Cancer Therapy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Drosophotoxicology: An Emerging Research Area for Assessing Nanoparticles Interaction with Living Organisms
Review

Cytotoxicity of Nanoparticles Contained in Food on Intestinal Cells and the Gut Microbiota

1
Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4, Graz A-8010, Austria
2
Center for Medical Research, Medical University of Graz, Stiftingtalstr. 24, Graz A-8010, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael Routledge and Bing Yan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 509; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040509
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Toxicity of Nanoparticles)
Toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) upon oral exposure has been studied in animals using physiological changes, behavior, histology, and blood analysis for evaluation. The effects recorded include the combination of the action on cells of the exposed animal and the reaction of the microorganisms that populate the external and internal surfaces of the body. The importance of these microorganisms, collectively termed as microbiota, for the health of the host has been widely recognized. They may also influence toxicity of NPs but these effects are difficult to differentiate from toxicity on cells of the gastrointestinal tract. To estimate the likelihood of preferential damage of the microbiota by NPs the relative sensitivity of enterocytes and bacteria was compared. For this comparison NPs with antimicrobial action present in consumer products were chosen. The comparison of cytotoxicity with Escherichia coli as representative for intestinal bacteria and on gastrointestinal cells revealed that silver NPs damaged bacteria at lower concentrations than enterocytes, while the opposite was true for zinc oxide NPs. These results indicate that silver NPs may cause adverse effects by selectively affecting the gut microbiota. Fecal transplantation from NP-exposed animals to unexposed ones offers the possibility to verify this hypothesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: silver; zinc oxide; nanotoxicology; cytotoxicity; antimicrobial effects silver; zinc oxide; nanotoxicology; cytotoxicity; antimicrobial effects
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Fröhlich, E.E.; Fröhlich, E. Cytotoxicity of Nanoparticles Contained in Food on Intestinal Cells and the Gut Microbiota. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 509. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040509

AMA Style

Fröhlich EE, Fröhlich E. Cytotoxicity of Nanoparticles Contained in Food on Intestinal Cells and the Gut Microbiota. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(4):509. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040509

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fröhlich, Esther E., and Eleonore Fröhlich. 2016. "Cytotoxicity of Nanoparticles Contained in Food on Intestinal Cells and the Gut Microbiota" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17, no. 4: 509. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040509

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop