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Article

Titanium Dioxide Particle Type and Concentration Influence the Inflammatory Response in Caco-2 Cells

1
Department of Human Nutrition, School of Life Studies, Sugiyama Jogakuen University, Nagoya 464-8662, Japan
2
Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507, Japan
3
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Tokyo Univeristy of Science, Noda 278-8510, Japan
4
Department of Human Genomics, Life Scinece Research Center, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
Present address: School of Public Health, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China
§
Present address: Toray International (China), Shanghai 200040, China
Academic Editor: Michael Routledge
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 576; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040576
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 10 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 April 2016 / Published: 16 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular Toxicity of Nanoparticles)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics, sunscreens, biomedicine, and food products. When used as a food additive, TiO2 nanoparticles are used in significant amounts as white food-coloring agents. However, the effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on the gastrointestinal tract remain unclear. The present study was designed to determine the effects of five TiO2 particles of different crystal structures and sizes in human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells and THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. Twenty-four-hour exposure to anatase (primary particle size: 50 and 100 nm) and rutile (50 nm) TiO2 particles reduced cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophages, but in not Caco-2 cells. However, 72-h exposure of Caco-2 cells to anatase (50 nm) TiO2 particles reduced cellular viability in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose (50 µg/mL) of anatase (100 nm), rutile (50 nm), and P25 TiO2 particles also reduced cellular viability in Caco-2 cells. The production of reactive oxygen species tended to increase in both types of cells, irrespective of the type of TiO2 particle. Exposure of THP-1 macrophages to 50 µg/mL of anatase (50 nm) TiO2 particles increased interleukin (IL)-1β expression level, and exposure of Caco-2 cells to 50 µg/mL of anatase (50 nm) TiO2 particles also increased IL-8 expression. The results indicated that anatase TiO2 nanoparticles induced inflammatory responses compared with other TiO2 particles. Further studies are required to determine the in vivo relevance of these findings to avoid the hazards of ingested particles. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; titanium dioxide; food additive; intestinal epithelium; macrophage; inflammation; reactive oxygen species nanoparticles; titanium dioxide; food additive; intestinal epithelium; macrophage; inflammation; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tada-Oikawa, S.; Ichihara, G.; Fukatsu, H.; Shimanuki, Y.; Tanaka, N.; Watanabe, E.; Suzuki, Y.; Murakami, M.; Izuoka, K.; Chang, J.; Wu, W.; Yamada, Y.; Ichihara, S. Titanium Dioxide Particle Type and Concentration Influence the Inflammatory Response in Caco-2 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 576. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040576

AMA Style

Tada-Oikawa S, Ichihara G, Fukatsu H, Shimanuki Y, Tanaka N, Watanabe E, Suzuki Y, Murakami M, Izuoka K, Chang J, Wu W, Yamada Y, Ichihara S. Titanium Dioxide Particle Type and Concentration Influence the Inflammatory Response in Caco-2 Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(4):576. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040576

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tada-Oikawa, Saeko, Gaku Ichihara, Hitomi Fukatsu, Yuka Shimanuki, Natsuki Tanaka, Eri Watanabe, Yuka Suzuki, Masahiko Murakami, Kiyora Izuoka, Jie Chang, Wenting Wu, Yoshiji Yamada, and Sahoko Ichihara. 2016. "Titanium Dioxide Particle Type and Concentration Influence the Inflammatory Response in Caco-2 Cells" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17, no. 4: 576. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17040576

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