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Review

Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension

1
Millenium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Genética Molecular y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330025 Santiago, Chile
2
Millenium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, Departamento de Endocrinología, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330074 Santiago, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally in this manuscript.
Academic Editor: Anastasia Susie Mihailidou
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 797; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17070797
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 2 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 23 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research on Hypertension)
Arterial hypertension is a common condition worldwide and an important predictor of several complicated diseases. Arterial hypertension can be triggered by many factors, including physiological, genetic, and lifestyle causes. Specifically, molecules of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system not only play important roles in the control of blood pressure, but they are also associated with the genesis of arterial hypertension, thus constituting a need for pharmacological interventions. Chronic high pressure generates mechanical damage along the vascular system, heart, and kidneys, which are the principal organs affected in this condition. In addition to mechanical stress, hypertension-induced oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and the activation of reparative mechanisms lead to end-organ damage, mainly due to fibrosis. Clinical trials have demonstrated that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system intervention in hypertensive patients lowers morbidity/mortality and inflammatory marker levels as compared to placebo patients, evidencing that this system controls more than blood pressure. This review emphasizes the detrimental effects that a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) imbalance has on health considerations above and beyond high blood pressure, such as fibrotic end-organ damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS); angiotensin II; aldosterone; end-organ damage; fibrosis; hypertension; primary aldosteronism renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS); angiotensin II; aldosterone; end-organ damage; fibrosis; hypertension; primary aldosteronism
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MDPI and ACS Style

Muñoz-Durango, N.; Fuentes, C.A.; Castillo, A.E.; González-Gómez, L.M.; Vecchiola, A.; Fardella, C.E.; Kalergis, A.M. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 797. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17070797

AMA Style

Muñoz-Durango N, Fuentes CA, Castillo AE, González-Gómez LM, Vecchiola A, Fardella CE, Kalergis AM. Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(7):797. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17070797

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muñoz-Durango, Natalia, Cristóbal A. Fuentes, Andrés E. Castillo, Luis M. González-Gómez, Andrea Vecchiola, Carlos E. Fardella, and Alexis M. Kalergis. 2016. "Role of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System beyond Blood Pressure Regulation: Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms Involved in End-Organ Damage during Arterial Hypertension" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17, no. 7: 797. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17070797

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