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Article

Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment

1
Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo 14800-903, Brazil
2
Department of Drugs and Medicines, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo 14800-903, Brazil
3
Federal University of São João Del-Rey, Divinópolis, Minas Gerais 36307-352, Brazil
4
Department of Organic Chemistry, Chemisty Institute, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo 14800-060, Brazil
5
Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto-FAMERP, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo 15090-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Már Másson
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1368; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17081368
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 28 June 2016 / Accepted: 30 June 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Delivery and Antimicrobial Agents)
Herbal-loaded drug delivery nanotechnological systems have been extensively studied recently. The antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants has shown better pharmacological action when such plants are loaded into a drug delivery system than when they are not loaded. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.) belongs to the Eriocaulaceae family and presents antiulcerogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the microdilution technique. Additionally, we performed hyphae inhibition and biofilm tests. Finally, experimental candidiasis was evaluated in in vivo models with Wistar female rats. The results showed effective antifungal activity after incorporation into S for all strains tested, with MICs ranging from 31.2 to 62.5 μg/mL. Microscopic observation of SE revealed an absence of filamentous cells 24 h of exposure to a concentration of 31.2 μg/mL. E demonstrated no effective action against biofilms, though SE showed inhibition against biofilms of all strains. In the in vivo experiment, SE was effective in the treatment of infection after only two days of treatment and was more effective than E and amphotericin B. The S. nitens is active against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the antifungal potential is being enhanced after incorporation into liquid crystal precursor systems (LCPS). These findings represent a promising application of SE in the treatment of VVC. View Full-Text
Keywords: liquid crystal precursor system; Candida albicans; Syngonanthus nitens; vulvovaginal candidiasis; therapeutic treatment liquid crystal precursor system; Candida albicans; Syngonanthus nitens; vulvovaginal candidiasis; therapeutic treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dos Santos Ramos, M.A.; De Toledo, L.G.; Calixto, G.M.F.; Bonifácio, B.V.; De Freitas Araújo, M.G.; Dos Santos, L.C.; De Almeida, M.T.G.; Chorilli, M.; Bauab, T.M. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1368. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17081368

AMA Style

Dos Santos Ramos MA, De Toledo LG, Calixto GMF, Bonifácio BV, De Freitas Araújo MG, Dos Santos LC, De Almeida MTG, Chorilli M, Bauab TM. Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(8):1368. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17081368

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dos Santos Ramos, Matheus A., Luciani G. De Toledo, Giovana M.F. Calixto, Bruna V. Bonifácio, Marcelo G. De Freitas Araújo, Lourdes C. Dos Santos, Margarete T.G. De Almeida, Marlus Chorilli, and Taís M. Bauab 2016. "Syngonanthus nitens Bong. (Rhul.)-Loaded Nanostructured System for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17, no. 8: 1368. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms17081368

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