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Article

Effects of Short-Term Probiotic Ingestion on Immune Profiles and Microbial Translocation among HIV-1-Infected Vietnamese Children

1
Department of Viral infection and International Health, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan
2
National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
3
Yakult Central Institute, Tokyo 186-8650, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(10), 2185; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18102185
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
Here, we investigated the effects of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) on immune profiles and intestinal microbial translocation among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This prospective study included 60 HIV-infected children—including 31 without antiretroviral therapy (ART) (HIV(+)) and 29 who received ART for a median of 3.5 years (ART(+)) and 20 children without HIV infection (HIV(−)). Participants were recruited in Vietnam. All children were given fermented milk containing LcS (6.5 × 109 cfu) daily for 8 weeks. Before and after LcS ingestion, blood samples were collected for virological, immunological, and bacteriological analyses. After LcS ingestion, peripheral CD4+ T-cell and Th2 (CXCR3CCR6CD4+) counts significantly increased in both HIV-infected groups; Th17 (CXCR3CCR6+CD4+) counts increased in all three groups; regulatory T-cell (CD25highCD4+) counts decreased in the ART(+) and HIV(−) groups; activated CD8+ cells (CD38+HLA-DR+CD8+) decreased from 27.5% to 13.2% (p < 0.001) in HIV(+) children; and plasma HIV load decreased slightly but significantly among HIV(+) children. No group showed a significantly altered frequency of bacterial 16S/23S rRNA gene detection in the plasma. No serious adverse events occurred. These findings suggest that short-term LcS ingestion is a safe supportive approach with immunological and virological benefits in HIV-infected children. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV-infected children; probiotics; intestinal microbial translocation; immune activation; 16S/23S ribosomal DNA HIV-infected children; probiotics; intestinal microbial translocation; immune activation; 16S/23S ribosomal DNA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ishizaki, A.; Bi, X.; Nguyen, L.V.; Matsuda, K.; Pham, H.V.; Phan, C.T.T.; Khu, D.T.K.; Ichimura, H. Effects of Short-Term Probiotic Ingestion on Immune Profiles and Microbial Translocation among HIV-1-Infected Vietnamese Children. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 2185. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18102185

AMA Style

Ishizaki A, Bi X, Nguyen LV, Matsuda K, Pham HV, Phan CTT, Khu DTK, Ichimura H. Effects of Short-Term Probiotic Ingestion on Immune Profiles and Microbial Translocation among HIV-1-Infected Vietnamese Children. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(10):2185. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18102185

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ishizaki, Azumi, Xiuqiong Bi, Lam V. Nguyen, Kazunori Matsuda, Hung V. Pham, Chung T.T. Phan, Dung T.K. Khu, and Hiroshi Ichimura. 2017. "Effects of Short-Term Probiotic Ingestion on Immune Profiles and Microbial Translocation among HIV-1-Infected Vietnamese Children" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18, no. 10: 2185. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18102185

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