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Article

In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Cytotoxic Effects of Aqueous Extracts from the Edible Sea Anemones Anemonia sulcata and Actinia equina

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REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, no. 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
2
REQUIMTE/LAQV, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 1021/1055, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Arráez-Román
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(3), 653; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18030653
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
Marine invertebrates have been attracting the attention of researchers for their application in nutrition, agriculture, and the pharmaceutical industry, among others. Concerning sea anemones (Cnidaria), little is known regarding their metabolic profiles and potential value as a source of pharmacologically-active agents. In this work, the chemical profiles of two species of sea anemones Actinia equina and Anemonia sulcata, were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) and its impact upon immune and gastric cells was evaluated. In both species, the methylpyridinium alkaloid homarine was the major compound in aqueous extracts. The extracts were effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced levels of nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a macrophage model of inflammation. Both the extracts and the alkaloid homarine were effective in inhibiting phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a pivotal enzyme in the initial steps of the inflammatory cascade. In order to mimic the oral consumption of these extracts; their effect upon human gastric cells was evaluated. While no caspase-9 activation was detected, the fact that the endoplasmic reticulum-resident caspase-4, and also caspase-3, were activated points to a non-classical mechanism of apoptosis in human gastric cells. This work provides new insights on the toxicity and biological potential of sea anemones increasingly present in human nutrition. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; sea anemones; gastric cells; macrophages; homarine; cytotoxicity inflammation; sea anemones; gastric cells; macrophages; homarine; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, T.C.; De Andrade, P.B.; Paiva-Martins, F.; Valentão, P.; Pereira, D.M. In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Cytotoxic Effects of Aqueous Extracts from the Edible Sea Anemones Anemonia sulcata and Actinia equina. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 653. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18030653

AMA Style

Silva TC, De Andrade PB, Paiva-Martins F, Valentão P, Pereira DM. In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Cytotoxic Effects of Aqueous Extracts from the Edible Sea Anemones Anemonia sulcata and Actinia equina. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2017; 18(3):653. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18030653

Chicago/Turabian Style

Silva, Tânia C., Paula B. De Andrade, Fátima Paiva-Martins, Patrícia Valentão, and David M. Pereira 2017. "In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory and Cytotoxic Effects of Aqueous Extracts from the Edible Sea Anemones Anemonia sulcata and Actinia equina" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 18, no. 3: 653. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms18030653

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