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Mechanisms of Intrinsic Tumor Resistance to Immunotherapy

Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota Medical School, 11-212 Moos Tower, Mayo Mail Code 195, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1340;
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 2 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Signaling Pathway of Immune Cells and Immune Disorder)
An increased understanding of the interactions between the immune system and tumors has opened the door to immunotherapy for cancer patients. Despite some success with checkpoint inhibitors including ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, and nivolumab, most cancer patients remain unresponsive to such immunotherapy, likely due to intrinsic tumor resistance. The mechanisms most likely involve reducing the quantity and/or quality of antitumor lymphocytes, which ultimately are driven by any number of developments: tumor mutations and adaptations, reduced neoantigen generation or expression, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) overexpression, loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) expression, and overexpression of the Wnt–β-catenin pathway. Current work in immunotherapy continues to identify various tumor resistance mechanisms; future work is needed to develop adjuvant treatments that target those mechanisms, in order to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy and to expand its scope. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer immunotherapy; resistance; oncogenes; signaling pathways cancer immunotherapy; resistance; oncogenes; signaling pathways
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rieth, J.; Subramanian, S. Mechanisms of Intrinsic Tumor Resistance to Immunotherapy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1340.

AMA Style

Rieth J, Subramanian S. Mechanisms of Intrinsic Tumor Resistance to Immunotherapy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(5):1340.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rieth, John; Subramanian, Subbaya. 2018. "Mechanisms of Intrinsic Tumor Resistance to Immunotherapy" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 5: 1340.

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