Next Article in Journal
cPKCγ-Modulated Sequential Reactivation of mTOR Inhibited Autophagic Flux in Neurons Exposed to Oxygen Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion
Next Article in Special Issue
Biodiversity and Activity of Gut Fungal Communities across the Life History of Trypophloeus klimeschi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)
Previous Article in Journal
Polarised VEGFA Signalling at Vascular Blood–Neural Barriers
Previous Article in Special Issue
MicroRNA-146a Deficiency Protects against Listeria monocytogenes Infection by Modulating the Gut Microbiota

Immune Ecosystem of Virus-Infected Host Tissues

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101, China
Key Laboratory of Fujian-Taiwan Animal Pathogen Biology, College of Animal Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1379;
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 6 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction 2018)
Virus infected host cells serve as a central immune ecological niche during viral infection and replication and stimulate the host immune response via molecular signaling. The viral infection and multiplication process involves complex intracellular molecular interactions between viral components and the host factors. Various types of host cells are also involved to modulate immune factors in delicate and dynamic equilibrium to maintain a balanced immune ecosystem in an infected host tissue. Antiviral host arsenals are equipped to combat or eliminate viral invasion. However, viruses have evolved with strategies to counter against antiviral immunity or hijack cellular machinery to survive inside host tissue for their multiplication. However, host immune systems have also evolved to neutralize the infection; which, in turn, either clears the virus from the infected host or causes immune-mediated host tissue injury. A complex relationship between viral pathogenesis and host antiviral defense could define the immune ecosystem of virus-infected host tissues. Understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying this ecosystem would uncover strategies to modulate host immune function for antiviral therapeutics. This review presents past and present updates of immune-ecological components of virus infected host tissue and explains how viruses subvert the host immune surveillances. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus; immunity; ecosystem; virus-host interaction; virus pathogenesis; immune subversion virus; immunity; ecosystem; virus-host interaction; virus pathogenesis; immune subversion
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Maarouf, M.; Rai, K.R.; Goraya, M.U.; Chen, J.-L. Immune Ecosystem of Virus-Infected Host Tissues. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1379.

AMA Style

Maarouf M, Rai KR, Goraya MU, Chen J-L. Immune Ecosystem of Virus-Infected Host Tissues. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(5):1379.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maarouf, Mohamed, Kul R. Rai, Mohsan U. Goraya, and Ji-Long Chen. 2018. "Immune Ecosystem of Virus-Infected Host Tissues" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 5: 1379.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop