Next Article in Journal
New Insight into the Octamer of TYMS Stabilized by Intermolecular Cys43-Disulfide
Next Article in Special Issue
The Bacterial Toxin CNF1 Induces Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells
Previous Article in Journal
The Spleen as an Optimal Site for Islet Transplantation and a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Commensal Staphylococcus aureus Provokes Immunity to Protect against Skin Infection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Review

Experimental Intrastriatal Applications of Botulinum Neurotoxin-A: A Review

Institute of Anatomy, Rostock University Medical Center, Gertrudenstraße 9, 18057 Rostock, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(5), 1392; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19051392
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 7 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Protein Toxins: Enemies within or Unexpected Friends)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative disorders. Its main pathophysiological characteristic is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta followed by a lack of striatal dopaminergic input and a consequent disinhibition of tonically active cholinergic interneurons. The resulting striatal hypercholinism causes major motor symptoms in PD. Anticholinergic pharmacotherapies have antiparkinsonian effects on motor symptoms, but, due to systemic actions, also numerous severe side effects occur on a regular basis. To circumvent these side effects, a local anticholinergic therapy acting exclusively in the striatum would be reasonable. Botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A) is synthesized by Clostridium botulinum and blocks the release of acetylcholine from the presynaptic bouton. For several decades, BoNT-A has been used successfully for medical and cosmetic purposes to induce controlled paralyses of single muscles. Our group and others investigated the experimental treatment of striatal hypercholinism by the direct injection of BoNT-A into the striatum of rats and mice as well as of hemiparkinsonian animal models. This review gives an overview of the most important results of the experimental intrastriatal BoNT-A application, with a focus on hemiparkinsonian rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum toxin; 6-OHDA; basal ganglia; striatum; Parkinson’s disease; brain; acetylcholine botulinum toxin; 6-OHDA; basal ganglia; striatum; Parkinson’s disease; brain; acetylcholine
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hawlitschka, A.; Wree, A. Experimental Intrastriatal Applications of Botulinum Neurotoxin-A: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 1392. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19051392

AMA Style

Hawlitschka A, Wree A. Experimental Intrastriatal Applications of Botulinum Neurotoxin-A: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(5):1392. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19051392

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hawlitschka, Alexander, and Andreas Wree. 2018. "Experimental Intrastriatal Applications of Botulinum Neurotoxin-A: A Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 5: 1392. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19051392

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop