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Review

Senescent Microvesicles: A Novel Advance in Molecular Mechanisms of Atherosclerotic Calcification

1
Biology Systems Department, Physiology, Alcala University, Alcala de Henares, 28805 Madrid, Spain
2
Cardiovascular Joint Research Unit, University Francisco de Vitoria/University Hospital Ramon y Cajal Research Unit (IRYCIS), 28223 Madrid, Spain
3
Biomedicine and Biotechnology Department, Alcala University, Alcala de Henares, 28805 Madrid, Spain
4
Department of Genetic, Physiology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University/Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital 12 de Octubre (i+12), 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors share senior authorship.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2003; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19072003
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathomechanisms of Atherosclerosis. Part I)
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease that causes the most heart attacks and strokes in humans, is the leading cause of death in the developing world; its principal clinical manifestation is coronary artery disease. The development of atherosclerosis is attributed to the aging process itself (biological aging) and is also associated with the development of chronic diseases (premature aging). Both aging processes produce an increase in risk factors such as oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and proinflammatory cytokines (oxi-inflamm-aging) that might generate endothelial senescence associated with damage in the vascular system. Cellular senescence increases microvesicle release as carriers of molecular information, which contributes to the development and calcification of atherosclerotic plaque, as a final step in advanced atherosclerotic plaque formation. Consequently, this review aims to summarize the information gleaned to date from studies investigating how the senescent extracellular vesicles, by delivering biological signalling, contribute to atherosclerotic calcification. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherosclerosis; microvesicles; senescence; endothelial senescence; vascular calcification; aging atherosclerosis; microvesicles; senescence; endothelial senescence; vascular calcification; aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alique, M.; Ramírez-Carracedo, R.; Bodega, G.; Carracedo, J.; Ramírez, R. Senescent Microvesicles: A Novel Advance in Molecular Mechanisms of Atherosclerotic Calcification. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 2003. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19072003

AMA Style

Alique M, Ramírez-Carracedo R, Bodega G, Carracedo J, Ramírez R. Senescent Microvesicles: A Novel Advance in Molecular Mechanisms of Atherosclerotic Calcification. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2018; 19(7):2003. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19072003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alique, Matilde, Rafael Ramírez-Carracedo, Guillermo Bodega, Julia Carracedo, and Rafael Ramírez. 2018. "Senescent Microvesicles: A Novel Advance in Molecular Mechanisms of Atherosclerotic Calcification" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 19, no. 7: 2003. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms19072003

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