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Review

DNA Damage and Repair in Human Reproductive Cells

1
Departamento de Biología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2
American Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
3
School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20010031
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biology of Spermatozoa)
The fundamental underlying paradigm of sexual reproduction is the production of male and female gametes of sufficient genetic difference and quality that, following syngamy, they result in embryos with genomic potential to allow for future adaptive change and the ability to respond to selective pressure. The fusion of dissimilar gametes resulting in the formation of a normal and viable embryo is known as anisogamy, and is concomitant with precise structural, physiological, and molecular control of gamete function for species survival. However, along the reproductive life cycle of all organisms, both male and female gametes can be exposed to an array of “stressors” that may adversely affect the composition and biological integrity of their proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, that may consequently compromise their capacity to produce normal embryos. The aim of this review is to highlight gamete genome organization, differences in the chronology of gamete production between the male and female, the inherent DNA protective mechanisms in these reproductive cells, the aetiology of DNA damage in germ cells, and the remarkable DNA repair mechanisms, pre- and post-syngamy, that function to maintain genome integrity. View Full-Text
Keywords: spermatozoon; oocyte; DNA damage; DNA repair; protamine; genetics; infertility spermatozoon; oocyte; DNA damage; DNA repair; protamine; genetics; infertility
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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Rodríguez, A.; Gosálvez, J.; Agarwal, A.; Roy, R.; Johnston, S. DNA Damage and Repair in Human Reproductive Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 31. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20010031

AMA Style

García-Rodríguez A, Gosálvez J, Agarwal A, Roy R, Johnston S. DNA Damage and Repair in Human Reproductive Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(1):31. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20010031

Chicago/Turabian Style

García-Rodríguez, Anaís, Jaime Gosálvez, Ashok Agarwal, Rosa Roy, and Stephen Johnston. 2019. "DNA Damage and Repair in Human Reproductive Cells" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 1: 31. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20010031

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