Next Article in Journal
Sphingomyelin Synthase 2 Promotes Endothelial Dysfunction by Inducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
Next Article in Special Issue
Protein Engineering of Dual-Cys Cyanobacteriochrome AM1_1186g2 for Biliverdin Incorporation and Far-Red/Blue Reversible Photoconversion
Previous Article in Journal
Translation Control of HAC1 by Regulation of Splicing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Previous Article in Special Issue
Confinement Effect of Micro- and Mesoporous Materials on the Spectroscopy and Dynamics of a Stilbene Derivative Dye
Article

Single Crystal FLIM Characterization of Clofazimine Loaded in Silica-Based Mesoporous Materials and Zeolites

Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales y Bioquímica, and INAMOL, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avenida Carlos III, S/N, 45071 Toledo, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2859; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20122859
Received: 20 April 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 12 June 2019
Clofazimine (CLZ) is an effective antibiotic used against a wide spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria and leprosy. One of its main drawbacks is its poor solubility in water. Silica based materials are used as drug delivery carriers that can increase the solubility of different hydrophobic drugs. Here, we studied how the properties of the silica framework of the mesoporous materials SBA-15, MCM-41, Al-MCM-41, and zeolites NaX, NaY, and HY affect the loading, stability, and distribution of encapsulated CLZ. Time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) experiments show the presence of neutral and protonated CLZ (1.3–3.8 ns) and weakly interacting aggregates (0.4–0.9 ns), along with H- and J-type aggregates (<0.1 ns). For the mesoporous and HY zeolite composites, the relative contribution to the overall emission spectra from H-type aggregates is low (<10%), while for the J-type aggregates it becomes higher (~30%). For NaX and NaY the former increased whereas the latter decreased. Although the [email protected] composites show higher loading compared to the [email protected] ones, the behavior of CLZ is not uniform and its dynamics are more heterogeneous across different single mesoporous particles. These results may have implication in the design of silica-based drug carriers for better loading and release mechanisms of hydrophobic drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: MCM-41; SBA-15; zeolites; mesoporous materials; silica-based materials; FLIM; microscopy; drug delivery; H- and J-aggregates MCM-41; SBA-15; zeolites; mesoporous materials; silica-based materials; FLIM; microscopy; drug delivery; H- and J-aggregates
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Angiolini, L.; Cohen, B.; Douhal, A. Single Crystal FLIM Characterization of Clofazimine Loaded in Silica-Based Mesoporous Materials and Zeolites. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2859. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20122859

AMA Style

Angiolini L, Cohen B, Douhal A. Single Crystal FLIM Characterization of Clofazimine Loaded in Silica-Based Mesoporous Materials and Zeolites. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(12):2859. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20122859

Chicago/Turabian Style

Angiolini, Lorenzo, Boiko Cohen, and Abderrazzak Douhal. 2019. "Single Crystal FLIM Characterization of Clofazimine Loaded in Silica-Based Mesoporous Materials and Zeolites" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 12: 2859. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20122859

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop