The bacterial biofilm formation in the oral cavity and the microbial activity around the implant tissue represent a potential factor on the interface between bone and implant fixture that could induce an inflammatory phenomenon and generate an increased risk for mucositis and peri-implantitis. The aim of the present clinical trial was to investigate the bacterial quality of a new antibacterial coating of the internal chamber of the implant in vivo at six months. The PIXIT implant (Edierre srl, Genova Italy) is prepared by coating the implant with an alcoholic solution containing polysiloxane oligomers and chlorhexidine gluconate at 1%. A total of 15 healthy patients (60 implants) with non-contributory past medical history (nine women and six men, all non-smokers, mean age of 53 years, ranging from 45–61 years) were scheduled to receive bilateral fixed prostheses or crown restorations supported by an implant fixture. No adverse effects and no implant failure were reported at four months. All experimental sites showed a good soft tissue healing at the experimental point times and no local evidence of inflammation was observed. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis on coated and uncoated implants showed a decrease of the bacterial count in the internal part of the implant chamber. The mean of total bacteria loading (TBL) detected in each PCR reaction was lower in treated implants (81,038 units/reaction) compared to untreated implants (90,057 units/reaction) (p
< 0.01). The polymeric chlorhexydine coating of the internal chamber of the implant showed the ability to control the bacterial loading at the level of the peri-implant tissue. Moreover, the investigation demonstrated that the coating is able to influence also the quality of the microbiota, in particular on the species involved in the pathogenesis of peri-implantitis that are involved with a higher risk of long-term failure of the dental implant restoration.
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