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Article

Viscoelastic Behavior of Embroidered Scaffolds for ACL Tissue Engineering Made of PLA and P(LA-CL) After In Vitro Degradation

1
Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., 01069 Dresden, Germany
2
Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Paracelsus Medical Private University, Salzburg and Nuremberg, 90419 Nuremberg, Germany
3
Forschungsinstitut für Leder und Kunststoffbahnen (FILK) gGmbH, 09599 Freiberg, Germany
4
Department of Biosciences, Paris Lodron University Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
5
Amedes MVZ für Laboratoriumsdiagnostik und Mikrobiologie Halle/Leipzig GmbH, 06112 Halle, Germany
6
Technische Universität Dresden, Faculty of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Institute of Textile Machinery and High Performance Material Technology, 01069 Dresden, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(18), 4655; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20184655
Received: 20 August 2019 / Revised: 16 September 2019 / Accepted: 17 September 2019 / Published: 19 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tendon/Ligament Reconstruction by Tissue Engineering)
A rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most common knee ligament injury. Current applied reconstruction methods have limitations in terms of graft availability and mechanical properties. A new approach could be the use of a tissue engineering construct that temporarily reflects the mechanical properties of native ligament tissues and acts as a carrier structure for cell seeding. In this study, embroidered scaffolds composed of polylactic acid (PLA) and poly(lactic-co-ε-caprolactone) (P(LA-CL)) threads were tested mechanically for their viscoelastic behavior under in vitro degradation. The relaxation behavior of both scaffold types (moco: mono-component scaffold made of PLA threads, bico: bi-component scaffold made of PLA and P(LA-CL) threads) was comparable to native lapine ACL. Most of the lapine ACL cells survived 32 days of cell culture and grew along the fibers. Cell vitality was comparable for moco and bico scaffolds. Lapine ACL cells were able to adhere to the polymer surfaces and spread along the threads throughout the scaffold. The mechanical behavior of degrading matrices with and without cells showed no significant differences. These results demonstrate the potential of embroidered scaffolds as an ACL tissue engineering approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; viscoelastic behavior; tissue engineering; PLA; P(LA-CL); embroidered scaffold; ligamentocytes; cytoskeleton anterior cruciate ligament; viscoelastic behavior; tissue engineering; PLA; P(LA-CL); embroidered scaffold; ligamentocytes; cytoskeleton
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hahn, J.; Schulze-Tanzil, G.; Schröpfer, M.; Meyer, M.; Gögele, C.; Hoyer, M.; Spickenheuer, A.; Heinrich, G.; Breier, A. Viscoelastic Behavior of Embroidered Scaffolds for ACL Tissue Engineering Made of PLA and P(LA-CL) After In Vitro Degradation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4655. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20184655

AMA Style

Hahn J, Schulze-Tanzil G, Schröpfer M, Meyer M, Gögele C, Hoyer M, Spickenheuer A, Heinrich G, Breier A. Viscoelastic Behavior of Embroidered Scaffolds for ACL Tissue Engineering Made of PLA and P(LA-CL) After In Vitro Degradation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(18):4655. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20184655

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hahn, Judith, Gundula Schulze-Tanzil, Michaela Schröpfer, Michael Meyer, Clemens Gögele, Mariann Hoyer, Axel Spickenheuer, Gert Heinrich, and Annette Breier. 2019. "Viscoelastic Behavior of Embroidered Scaffolds for ACL Tissue Engineering Made of PLA and P(LA-CL) After In Vitro Degradation" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 18: 4655. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20184655

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