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Review

Drug-Induced Hypertension Caused by Multikinase Inhibitors (Sorafenib, Sunitinib, Lenvatinib and Axitinib) in Renal Cell Carcinoma Treatment

1
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergsgade 10, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
2
Gravitational Biology and Translational Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Mechanical Engineering, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
3
Clinic for Plastic, Aesthetic and Hand Surgery, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
4
Medical Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4712; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20194712
Received: 29 August 2019 / Revised: 19 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 23 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multikinase Inhibitors and Cancer)
This paper reviews current treatments for renal cell carcinoma/cancer (RCC) with the multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) sorafenib, sunitinib, lenvatinib and axitinib. Furthermore, it compares these drugs regarding progression-free survival, overall survival and adverse effects (AE), with a focus on hypertension. Sorafenib and sunitinib, which are included in international clinical guidelines as first- and second-line therapy in metastatic RCC, are now being challenged by new-generation drugs like lenvatinib and axitinib. These drugs have shown significant clinical benefits for patients with RCC, but all four induce a variety of AEs. Hypertension is one of the most common AEs related to MKI treatment. Comparing sorafenib, sunitinib and lenvatinib revealed that sorafenib and sunitinib had the same efficacy, but sorafenib was safer to use. Lenvatinib showed better efficacy than sorafenib but worse safety. No trials have yet been completed that compare lenvatinib with sunitinib. Although axitinib promotes slightly higher hypertension rates compared to sunitinib, the overall discontinuation rate and cardiovascular complications are favourable. Although the mean rate of patients who develop hypertension is similar for each drug, some trials have shown large differences, which could indicate that lifestyle and/or genetic factors play an additional role. View Full-Text
Keywords: renal cell carcinoma; sorafenib; sunitinib; lenvatinib; axitinib; multikinase inhibitor; hypertension renal cell carcinoma; sorafenib; sunitinib; lenvatinib; axitinib; multikinase inhibitor; hypertension
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bæk Møller, N.; Budolfsen, C.; Grimm, D.; Krüger, M.; Infanger, M.; Wehland, M.; E. Magnusson, N. Drug-Induced Hypertension Caused by Multikinase Inhibitors (Sorafenib, Sunitinib, Lenvatinib and Axitinib) in Renal Cell Carcinoma Treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 4712. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20194712

AMA Style

Bæk Møller N, Budolfsen C, Grimm D, Krüger M, Infanger M, Wehland M, E. Magnusson N. Drug-Induced Hypertension Caused by Multikinase Inhibitors (Sorafenib, Sunitinib, Lenvatinib and Axitinib) in Renal Cell Carcinoma Treatment. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(19):4712. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20194712

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bæk Møller, Nanna, Cecilie Budolfsen, Daniela Grimm, Marcus Krüger, Manfred Infanger, Markus Wehland, and Nils E. Magnusson. 2019. "Drug-Induced Hypertension Caused by Multikinase Inhibitors (Sorafenib, Sunitinib, Lenvatinib and Axitinib) in Renal Cell Carcinoma Treatment" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 19: 4712. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20194712

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