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Brassinosteroids, the Sixth Class of Phytohormones: A Molecular View from the Discovery to Hormonal Interactions in Plant Development and Stress Adaptation

1
Functional Genome Laboratory, Department of Genetics, Evolution, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas 13083-970, Brazil
2
Center for Tropical Crops and Biocommodities, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 400, Australia
3
Laboratory of Phytochemistry, Agronomic Institute, Campinas 13020-902, Brazil
4
Mandava Associates, LLC, 1050 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. Suite 500, Washington, DC 20036, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 331; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20020331
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 15 January 2019
Phytohormones are natural chemical messengers that play critical roles in the regulation of plant growth and development as well as responses to biotic and abiotic stress factors, maintaining plant homeostasis, and allowing adaptation to environmental changes. The discovery of a new class of phytohormones, the brassinosteroids (BRs), almost 40 years ago opened a new era for the studies of plant growth and development and introduced new perspectives in the regulation of agronomic traits through their use in agriculture. BRs are a group of hormones with significant growth regulatory activity that act independently and in conjunction with other phytohormones to control different BR-regulated activities. Genetic and molecular research has increased our understanding of how BRs and their cross-talk with other phytohormones control several physiological and developmental processes. The present article provides an overview of BRs’ discovery as well as recent findings on their interactions with other phytohormones at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, in addition to clarifying how their network works to modulate plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. View Full-Text
Keywords: brassinosteroids; plant hormones; hormonal cross-talk brassinosteroids; plant hormones; hormonal cross-talk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peres, A.L.G.L.; Soares, J.S.; Tavares, R.G.; Righetto, G.; Zullo, M.A.T.; Mandava, N.B.; Menossi, M. Brassinosteroids, the Sixth Class of Phytohormones: A Molecular View from the Discovery to Hormonal Interactions in Plant Development and Stress Adaptation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 331. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20020331

AMA Style

Peres ALGL, Soares JS, Tavares RG, Righetto G, Zullo MAT, Mandava NB, Menossi M. Brassinosteroids, the Sixth Class of Phytohormones: A Molecular View from the Discovery to Hormonal Interactions in Plant Development and Stress Adaptation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(2):331. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20020331

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peres, Ana L.G.L., José S. Soares, Rafael G. Tavares, Germanna Righetto, Marco A.T. Zullo, N. B. Mandava, and Marcelo Menossi. 2019. "Brassinosteroids, the Sixth Class of Phytohormones: A Molecular View from the Discovery to Hormonal Interactions in Plant Development and Stress Adaptation" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 2: 331. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20020331

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