In this article, we present an enhanced sampling method based on a hybrid Hamiltonian which combines experimental distance restraints with a bias dependent from multiple path-dependent variables. This simulation method determines the bias-coordinates on the fly
and does not require a priori
knowledge about reaction coordinates. The hybrid Hamiltonian accelerates the sampling of proteins, and, combined with experimental distance information, the technique considers the restraints adaptively and in dependency of the system’s intrinsic dynamics. We validate the methodology on the dipole relaxation of two water models and the conformational landscape of dialanine. Using experimental NMR-restraint data, we explore the folding landscape of the TrpCage mini-protein and in a second example apply distance restraints from chemical crosslinking/mass spectrometry experiments for the sampling of the conformation space of the Killer Cell Lectin-like Receptor Subfamily B Member 1A (NKR-P1A). The new methodology has the potential to adaptively introduce experimental restraints without affecting the conformational space of the system along an ergodic trajectory. Since only a limited number of input- and no-order parameters are required for the setup of the simulation, the method is broadly applicable and has the potential to be combined with coarse-graining methods.
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