Amelioration of Mitochondrial Quality Control and Proteostasis by Natural Compounds in Parkinson’s Disease Models
Division of Biotechnology, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 42988, Korea
Department of New Biology, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 42988, Korea
Well Aging Research Center, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 42988, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5208; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20205208
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 21 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Neuroprotection)
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a well-known age-related neurodegenerative disorder associated with longer lifespans and rapidly aging populations. The pathophysiological mechanism is a complex progress involving cellular damage such as mitochondrial dysfunction and protein homeostasis. Age-mediated degenerative neurological disorders can reduce the quality of life and also impose economic burdens. Currently, the common treatment is replacement with levodopa to address low dopamine levels; however, this does not halt the progression of PD and is associated with adverse effects, including dyskinesis. In addition, elderly patients can react negatively to treatment with synthetic neuroprotection agents. Recently, natural compounds such as phytochemicals with fewer side effects have been reported as candidate treatments of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, hormesis, proteostasis, the ubiquitin‒proteasome system, and autophagy (mitophagy) to explain the neuroprotective effects of using natural products as a therapeutic strategy. We also summarize the efforts to use natural extracts to develop novel pharmacological candidates for treatment of age-related PD.