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Endometrial Immune Dysfunction in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier, 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
U.O.C. di Ostetricia e Patologia Ostetrica, Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute della Donna, del Bambino e di Sanità Pubblica, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A.Gemelli IRCCS, Laego A. Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome Italy
Istituto di Clinica Ostetrica e Ginecologica, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5332;
Received: 17 September 2019 / Revised: 23 October 2019 / Accepted: 24 October 2019 / Published: 26 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive Immunology: Cellular and Molecular Biology)
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) represents an unresolved problem for contemporary gynecology and obstetrics. In fact, it is not only a relevant complication of pregnancy, but is also a significant reproductive disorder affecting around 5% of couples desiring a child. The current knowledge on RPL is largely incomplete, since nearly 50% of RPL cases are still classified as unexplained. Emerging evidence indicates that the endometrium is a key tissue involved in the correct immunologic dialogue between the mother and the conceptus, which is a condition essential for the proper establishment and maintenance of a successful pregnancy. The immunologic events occurring at the maternal–fetal interface within the endometrium in early pregnancy are extremely complex and involve a large array of immune cells and molecules with immunoregulatory properties. A growing body of experimental studies suggests that endometrial immune dysregulation could be responsible for several, if not many, cases of RPL of unknown origin. The present article reviews the major immunologic pathways, cells, and molecular determinants involved in the endometrial dysfunction observed with specific application to RPL. View Full-Text
Keywords: recurrent pregnancy loss; endometrium; decidua; immunologic dysfunction recurrent pregnancy loss; endometrium; decidua; immunologic dysfunction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ticconi, C.; Pietropolli, A.; Di Simone, N.; Piccione, E.; Fazleabas, A. Endometrial Immune Dysfunction in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5332.

AMA Style

Ticconi C, Pietropolli A, Di Simone N, Piccione E, Fazleabas A. Endometrial Immune Dysfunction in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(21):5332.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ticconi, Carlo, Adalgisa Pietropolli, Nicoletta Di Simone, Emilio Piccione, and Asgerally Fazleabas. 2019. "Endometrial Immune Dysfunction in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 21: 5332.

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