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Review

Targeting Immune-Related Biological Processes in Solid Tumors: We do Need Biomarkers

1
Department of Medicine and Surgery, Pathology, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano- Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy
2
Division of Pathology, IEO-European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
4
Department of Pathology, University Hospital of Cologne, Institute of Pathology, 50924 Cologne, Germany
5
Department of Research, Human Tumors Immunobiology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, 20133 Milan, Italy
6
Division of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda-Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
7
School of Pathology, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
8
Pd.D. Program in Translational Medicine, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
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Division of Pathology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda-Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
10
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
11
Department of Public Health, University of Naples Federico II, 80137 Naples, Italy
12
Department of Biomedical, Surgical, and Dental Sciences, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5452; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20215452
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 30 October 2019 / Published: 1 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunoediting and Beyond)
Immunotherapy has become the standard-of-care in many solid tumors. Despite the significant recent achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, several issues related to patients’ selection for immunotherapy remain unsolved. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that, in this setting, the vision of a single biomarker is somewhat naïve and imprecise, given that immunotherapy does not follow the rules that we have experienced in the past for targeted therapies. On the other hand, additional immune-related biomarkers that are reliable in real-life clinical practice remain to be identified. Recently, the immune-checkpoint blockade has been approved in the US irrespective of the tumor site of origin. Further histology-agnostic approvals, coupled with with tumor-specific companion diagnostics and guidelines, are expected in this field. In addition, immune-related biomarkers can also have a significant prognostic value. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of these biomarkers and their characterization in the management of lung cancer, melanoma, colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, head and neck cancer, renal cell carcinoma, urothelial cancers, and breast cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunotherapy; immunoediting; cancer; biomarkers; melanoma; lung cancer; breast cancer; head and neck cancer; gastrointestinal tract cancer; renal cell carcinoma; urothelial cancer; breast cancer immunotherapy; immunoediting; cancer; biomarkers; melanoma; lung cancer; breast cancer; head and neck cancer; gastrointestinal tract cancer; renal cell carcinoma; urothelial cancer; breast cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pagni, F.; Guerini-Rocco, E.; Schultheis, A.M.; Grazia, G.; Rijavec, E.; Ghidini, M.; Lopez, G.; Venetis, K.; Croci, G.A.; Malapelle, U.; Fusco, N. Targeting Immune-Related Biological Processes in Solid Tumors: We do Need Biomarkers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5452. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20215452

AMA Style

Pagni F, Guerini-Rocco E, Schultheis AM, Grazia G, Rijavec E, Ghidini M, Lopez G, Venetis K, Croci GA, Malapelle U, Fusco N. Targeting Immune-Related Biological Processes in Solid Tumors: We do Need Biomarkers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(21):5452. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20215452

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pagni, Fabio, Elena Guerini-Rocco, Anne M. Schultheis, Giulia Grazia, Erika Rijavec, Michele Ghidini, Gianluca Lopez, Konstantinos Venetis, Giorgio A. Croci, Umberto Malapelle, and Nicola Fusco. 2019. "Targeting Immune-Related Biological Processes in Solid Tumors: We do Need Biomarkers" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 21: 5452. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20215452

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