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Article

Behavioral Impairments and Oxidative Stress in the Brain, Muscle, and Gill Caused by Chronic Exposure of C70 Nanoparticles on Adult Zebrafish

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Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
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Department of Bioscience Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
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Guangxi Key Laboratory of Efficacy Study on Chinese Materia Medica, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530200, China
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Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Center for Research on Functional Ingredients of Agricultural Residues, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530200, China
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Department of Biological Science & Technology College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
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Center for Biomedical Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
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Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5795; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20225795
Received: 11 October 2019 / Revised: 13 November 2019 / Accepted: 13 November 2019 / Published: 18 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology and Nanosafety 2.0)
There is an imperative need to develop efficient whole-animal-based testing assays to determine the potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. While previous studies have demonstrated toxicity in lung and skin cells after C70 nanoparticles (NPs) exposure, the potential detrimental role of C70 NPs in neurobehavior is largely unaddressed. Here, we evaluated the chronic effects of C70 NPs exposure on behavior and alterations in biochemical responses in adult zebrafish. Two different exposure doses were used for this experiment: low dose (0.5 ppm) and high dose (1.5 ppm). Behavioral tests were performed after two weeks of exposure of C70 NPs. We found decreased locomotion, exploration, mirror biting, social interaction, and shoaling activities, as well as anxiety elevation and circadian rhythm locomotor activity impairment after ~2 weeks in the C70 NP-exposed fish. The results of biochemical assays reveal that following exposure of zebrafish to 1.5 ppm of C70 NPs, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the brain and muscle tissues increased significantly. In addition, the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) also increased from 2.95 ± 0.12 U/ug to 8.46 ± 0.25 U/ug and from 0.90 ± 0.03 U/ug to 3.53 ± 0.64 U/ug in the muscle and brain tissues, respectively. Furthermore, an increased level of cortisol was also observed in muscle and brain tissues, ranging from 17.95 ± 0.90 pg/ug to 23.95 ± 0.66 pg/ug and from 3.47 ± 0.13 pg/ug to 4.91 ± 0.51 pg/ug, respectively. Increment of Hif1-α level was also observed in both tissues. The elevation was ranging from 11.65 ± 0.54 pg/ug to 18.45 ± 1.00 pg/ug in the muscle tissue and from 4.26 ± 0.11 pg/ug to 6.86 ± 0.37 pg/ug in the brain tissue. Moreover, the content of DNA damage and inflammatory markers such as ssDNA, TNF-α, and IL-1β were also increased substantially in the brain tissues. Significant changes in several biomarker levels, including catalase and malondialdehyde (MDA), were also observed in the gill tissues. Finally, we used a neurophenomic approach with a particular focus on environmental influences, which can also be easily adapted for other aquatic fish species, to assess the toxicity of metal and carbon-based nanoparticles. In summary, this is the first study to illustrate the adult zebrafish toxicity and the alterations in several neurobehavior parameters after zebrafish exposure to environmentally relevant amounts of C70 NPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: C70; reactive oxygen species; nanoparticle toxicity; behavior tests; phenomics C70; reactive oxygen species; nanoparticle toxicity; behavior tests; phenomics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sarasamma, S.; Audira, G.; Samikannu, P.; Juniardi, S.; Siregar, P.; Hao, E.; Chen, J.-R.; Hsiao, C.-D. Behavioral Impairments and Oxidative Stress in the Brain, Muscle, and Gill Caused by Chronic Exposure of C70 Nanoparticles on Adult Zebrafish. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5795. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20225795

AMA Style

Sarasamma S, Audira G, Samikannu P, Juniardi S, Siregar P, Hao E, Chen J-R, Hsiao C-D. Behavioral Impairments and Oxidative Stress in the Brain, Muscle, and Gill Caused by Chronic Exposure of C70 Nanoparticles on Adult Zebrafish. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(22):5795. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20225795

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sarasamma, Sreeja, Gilbert Audira, Prabu Samikannu, Stevhen Juniardi, Petrus Siregar, Erwei Hao, Jung-Ren Chen, and Chung-Der Hsiao. 2019. "Behavioral Impairments and Oxidative Stress in the Brain, Muscle, and Gill Caused by Chronic Exposure of C70 Nanoparticles on Adult Zebrafish" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 22: 5795. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20225795

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