Many studies have been written on vitamin supplementation, fatty acid, and dementia, but results are still under debate, and no definite conclusion has yet been drawn. Nevertheless, a significant amount of lab evidence confirms that vitamins of the B group are tightly related to gene control for endothelium protection, act as antioxidants, play a co-enzymatic role in the most critical biochemical reactions inside the brain, and cooperate with many other elements, such as choline, for the synthesis of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine, through S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) methyl donation. B-vitamins have anti-inflammatory properties and act in protective roles against neurodegenerative mechanisms, for example, through modulation of the glutamate currents and a reduction of the calcium currents. In addition, they also have extraordinary antioxidant properties. However, laboratory data are far from clinical practice. Many studies have tried to apply these results in everyday clinical activity, but results have been discouraging and far from a possible resolution of the associated mysteries, like those represented by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or small vessel disease dementia. Above all, two significant problems emerge from the research: No consensus exists on general diagnostic criteria—MCI or AD? Which diagnostic criteria should be applied for small vessel disease-related dementia? In addition, no general schema exists for determining a possible correct time of implementation to have effective results. Here we present an up-to-date review of the literature on such topics, shedding some light on the possible interaction of vitamins and phosphatidylcholine, and their role in brain metabolism and catabolism. Further studies should take into account all of these questions, with well-designed and world-homogeneous trials.
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