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Review

Dual Roles of Astrocyte-Derived Factors in Regulation of Blood-Brain Barrier Function after Brain Damage

1
Laboratory of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University, 3-11-1 Nishikiori-Kita, Tondabayashi, Osaka 584-8540, Japan
2
Laboratory of Pharmacology, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, 4-19-1 Motoyama-Kita Higashinada, Kobe 668-8558, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 571; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20030571
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 27 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major functional barrier in the central nervous system (CNS), and inhibits the extravasation of intravascular contents and transports various essential nutrients between the blood and the brain. After brain damage by traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia and several other CNS disorders, the functions of the BBB are disrupted, resulting in severe secondary damage including brain edema and inflammatory injury. Therefore, BBB protection and recovery are considered novel therapeutic strategies for reducing brain damage. Emerging evidence suggests key roles of astrocyte-derived factors in BBB disruption and recovery after brain damage. The astrocyte-derived vascular permeability factors include vascular endothelial growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases, nitric oxide, glutamate and endothelin-1, which enhance BBB permeability leading to BBB disruption. By contrast, the astrocyte-derived protective factors include angiopoietin-1, sonic hedgehog, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, retinoic acid and insulin-like growth factor-1 and apolipoprotein E which attenuate BBB permeability resulting in recovery of BBB function. In this review, the roles of these astrocyte-derived factors in BBB function are summarized, and their significance as therapeutic targets for BBB protection and recovery after brain damage are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: astrocytes; blood-brain barrier; endothelial cells; tight junction astrocytes; blood-brain barrier; endothelial cells; tight junction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Michinaga, S.; Koyama, Y. Dual Roles of Astrocyte-Derived Factors in Regulation of Blood-Brain Barrier Function after Brain Damage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 571. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20030571

AMA Style

Michinaga S, Koyama Y. Dual Roles of Astrocyte-Derived Factors in Regulation of Blood-Brain Barrier Function after Brain Damage. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(3):571. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20030571

Chicago/Turabian Style

Michinaga, Shotaro, and Yutaka Koyama. 2019. "Dual Roles of Astrocyte-Derived Factors in Regulation of Blood-Brain Barrier Function after Brain Damage" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 3: 571. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20030571

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