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ERK Activity Dynamics during Zebrafish Embryonic Development

ERK Activity Imaging During Migration of Living Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

Division of Tumor Cell Biology and Bioimaging, Cancer Research Institute of Kanazawa University, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan
Department of Oncologic Pathology, School of Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 679;
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 1 February 2019 / Published: 5 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ERK Signaling Pathway in Diseases)
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is a major downstream factor of the EGFR-RAS-RAF signalling pathway, and thus the role of ERK in cell growth has been widely examined. The development of biosensors based on fluorescent proteins has enabled us to measure ERK activities in living cells, both after growth factor stimulation and in its absence. Long-term imaging unexpectedly revealed the oscillative activation of ERK in an epithelial sheet or a cyst in vitro. Studies using transgenic mice expressing the ERK biosensor have revealed inhomogeneous ERK activities among various cell species. In vivo Förster (or fluorescence) resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging shed light on a novel role of ERK in cell migration. Neutrophils and epithelial cells in various organs such as intestine, skin, lung and bladder showed spatio-temporally different cell dynamics and ERK activities. Experiments using inhibitors confirmed that ERK activities are required for various pathological responses, including epithelial repair after injuries, inflammation, and niche formation of cancer metastasis. In conclusion, biosensors for ERK will be powerful and valuable tools to investigate the roles of ERK in situ. View Full-Text
Keywords: biosensor; FRET; cell migration; ERK biosensor; FRET; cell migration; ERK
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hirata, E.; Kiyokawa, E. ERK Activity Imaging During Migration of Living Cells In Vitro and In Vivo. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 679.

AMA Style

Hirata E, Kiyokawa E. ERK Activity Imaging During Migration of Living Cells In Vitro and In Vivo. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(3):679.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hirata, Eishu, and Etsuko Kiyokawa. 2019. "ERK Activity Imaging During Migration of Living Cells In Vitro and In Vivo" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 3: 679.

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