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Review

Metabolic Plasticity of Astrocytes and Aging of the Brain

1
Department of Biology, Graduate School of Sciences, Kobe University, 657-8501 Kobe, Japan
2
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
3
Laboratory of Cell Engineering, Celica Biomedical, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology—Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
5
Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
6
Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 941; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20040941
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 17 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 21 February 2019
As part of the blood-brain-barrier, astrocytes are ideally positioned between cerebral vasculature and neuronal synapses to mediate nutrient uptake from the systemic circulation. In addition, astrocytes have a robust enzymatic capacity of glycolysis, glycogenesis and lipid metabolism, managing nutrient support in the brain parenchyma for neuronal consumption. Here, we review the plasticity of astrocyte energy metabolism under physiologic and pathologic conditions, highlighting age-dependent brain dysfunctions. In astrocytes, glycolysis and glycogenesis are regulated by noradrenaline and insulin, respectively, while mitochondrial ATP production and fatty acid oxidation are influenced by the thyroid hormone. These regulations are essential for maintaining normal brain activities, and impairments of these processes may lead to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. Metabolic plasticity is also associated with (re)activation of astrocytes, a process associated with pathologic events. It is likely that the recently described neurodegenerative and neuroprotective subpopulations of reactive astrocytes metabolize distinct energy substrates, and that this preference is supposed to explain some of their impacts on pathologic processes. Importantly, physiologic and pathologic properties of astrocytic metabolic plasticity bear translational potential in defining new potential diagnostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets to mitigate neurodegeneration and age-related brain dysfunctions. View Full-Text
Keywords: astrocyte; metabolism; glucose; fatty acid; insulin; noradrenaline; thyroid hormone astrocyte; metabolism; glucose; fatty acid; insulin; noradrenaline; thyroid hormone
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morita, M.; Ikeshima-Kataoka, H.; Kreft, M.; Vardjan, N.; Zorec, R.; Noda, M. Metabolic Plasticity of Astrocytes and Aging of the Brain. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 941. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20040941

AMA Style

Morita M, Ikeshima-Kataoka H, Kreft M, Vardjan N, Zorec R, Noda M. Metabolic Plasticity of Astrocytes and Aging of the Brain. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(4):941. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20040941

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morita, Mitsuhiro, Hiroko Ikeshima-Kataoka, Marko Kreft, Nina Vardjan, Robert Zorec, and Mami Noda. 2019. "Metabolic Plasticity of Astrocytes and Aging of the Brain" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 4: 941. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20040941

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