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Review

Aberrant Calcium Signals in Reactive Astrocytes: A Key Process in Neurological Disorders

1
Department of Neuropharmacology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan
2
Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
3
Department of Pediatrics, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 996; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20040996
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 20 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 25 February 2019
Astrocytes are abundant cells in the brain that regulate multiple aspects of neural tissue homeostasis by providing structural and metabolic support to neurons, maintaining synaptic environments and regulating blood flow. Recent evidence indicates that astrocytes also actively participate in brain functions and play a key role in brain disease by responding to neuronal activities and brain insults. Astrocytes become reactive in response to injury and inflammation, which is typically described as hypertrophy with increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Reactive astrocytes are frequently found in many neurological disorders and are a hallmark of brain disease. Furthermore, reactive astrocytes may drive the initiation and progression of disease processes. Recent improvements in the methods to visualize the activity of reactive astrocytes in situ and in vivo have helped elucidate their functions. Ca2+ signals in reactive astrocytes are closely related to multiple aspects of disease and can be a good indicator of disease severity/state. In this review, we summarize recent findings concerning reactive astrocyte Ca2+ signals. We discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant Ca2+ signals in reactive astrocytes and the functional significance of aberrant Ca2+ signals in neurological disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: reactive astrocytes; calcium signals; epilepsy; Alexander disease reactive astrocytes; calcium signals; epilepsy; Alexander disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shigetomi, E.; Saito, K.; Sano, F.; Koizumi, S. Aberrant Calcium Signals in Reactive Astrocytes: A Key Process in Neurological Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 996. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20040996

AMA Style

Shigetomi E, Saito K, Sano F, Koizumi S. Aberrant Calcium Signals in Reactive Astrocytes: A Key Process in Neurological Disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(4):996. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20040996

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shigetomi, Eiji, Kozo Saito, Fumikazu Sano, and Schuichi Koizumi. 2019. "Aberrant Calcium Signals in Reactive Astrocytes: A Key Process in Neurological Disorders" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 4: 996. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20040996

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