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Article

Assessment of the Efficacy and Mode of Action of Benzo(1,2,3)-Thiadiazole-7-Carbothioic Acid S-Methyl Ester (BTH) and Its Derivatives in Plant Protection Against Viral Disease

1
Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Institute of Plant Protection, National Research Institute, ul. Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland
2
Department of Virology and Bacteriology, Institute of Plant Protection, National Research Institute, ul. Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland
3
Poznań Science and Technology Park, Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation, ul. Rubież 46, 61-612 Poznań, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1598; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20071598
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 30 March 2019
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) induction is one of the primary defence mechanisms of plants against a broad range of pathogens. It can be induced by infectious agents or by synthetic molecules, such as benzo(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH). SAR induction is associated with increases in salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and expression of defence marker genes (e.g., phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the pathogenesis-related (PR) protein family, and non-expressor of PR genes (NPR1)). Various types of pathogens and pests induce plant responses by activating signalling pathways associated with SA, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET). This work presents an analysis of the influence of BTH and its derivatives as resistance inducers in healthy and virus-infected plants by determining the expression levels of selected resistance markers associated with the SA, JA, and ET pathways. The phytotoxic effects of these compounds and their influence on the course of viral infection were also studied. Based on the results obtained, the best-performing BTH derivatives and their optimal concentration for plant performance were selected, and their mode of action was suggested. It was shown that application of BTH and its derivatives induces increased expression of marker genes of both the SA- and JA-mediated pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: BTH; ionic liquids; systemic acquired resistance (SAR); signalling pathway; resistance inducers; SA; JA; ET; plant virus; plant-virus interaction; viral disease BTH; ionic liquids; systemic acquired resistance (SAR); signalling pathway; resistance inducers; SA; JA; ET; plant virus; plant-virus interaction; viral disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Frąckowiak, P.; Pospieszny, H.; Smiglak, M.; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, A. Assessment of the Efficacy and Mode of Action of Benzo(1,2,3)-Thiadiazole-7-Carbothioic Acid S-Methyl Ester (BTH) and Its Derivatives in Plant Protection Against Viral Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1598. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20071598

AMA Style

Frąckowiak P, Pospieszny H, Smiglak M, Obrępalska-Stęplowska A. Assessment of the Efficacy and Mode of Action of Benzo(1,2,3)-Thiadiazole-7-Carbothioic Acid S-Methyl Ester (BTH) and Its Derivatives in Plant Protection Against Viral Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(7):1598. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20071598

Chicago/Turabian Style

Frąckowiak, Patryk, Henryk Pospieszny, Marcin Smiglak, and Aleksandra Obrępalska-Stęplowska. 2019. "Assessment of the Efficacy and Mode of Action of Benzo(1,2,3)-Thiadiazole-7-Carbothioic Acid S-Methyl Ester (BTH) and Its Derivatives in Plant Protection Against Viral Disease" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 7: 1598. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20071598

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