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Exosomes for Diagnosis and Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers

1
Personalized Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Gastroenterology “S. De Bellis” Research Hospital, Via Turi 27, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
2
Institute for Chemical-Physical Processes (IPCF)-CNR SS Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
3
Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, National Institute of Gastroenterology, “S. de Bellis” Research Hospital, Via Turi 27, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy
5
Scientific Direction, National Institute of Gastroenterology “S. de Bellis”, Research Hospital, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 367; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21010367
Received: 16 December 2019 / Revised: 29 December 2019 / Accepted: 31 December 2019 / Published: 6 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology in Colonic Diseases)
Exosomes are membrane-bound extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by most cells, having a size ranging from 30 to 150 nm, and are involved in mechanisms of cell-cell communication in physiological and pathological tissues. Exosomes are engaged in the transport of biomolecules, such as lipids, proteins, messenger RNAs, and microRNA, and in signal transmission through the intercellular transfer of components. In the context of proteins and nucleic acids transported from exosomes, our interest is focused on the Frizzled proteins family and related messenger RNA. Exosomes can regenerate stem cell phenotypes and convert them into cancer stem cells by regulating the Wnt pathway receptor family, namely Frizzled proteins. In particular, for gastrointestinal cancers, the Frizzled protein involved in those mechanisms is Frizzled-10 (FZD-10). Currently, increasing attention is being devoted to the protein and lipid composition of exosomes interior and membranes, representing profound knowledge of specific exosomes composition fundamental for their application as new delivering drug tools for cancer therapy. This review intends to cover the most recent literature on the use of exosome vesicles for early diagnosis, follow-up, and the use of these physiological nanovectors as drug delivery systems for gastrointestinal cancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: exosomes; tumorigenesis; gastrointestinal cancers; gold immunostaining; lipidomic; therapeutic drug delivery nanovehicles exosomes; tumorigenesis; gastrointestinal cancers; gold immunostaining; lipidomic; therapeutic drug delivery nanovehicles
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scavo, M.P.; Depalo, N.; Tutino, V.; De Nunzio, V.; Ingrosso, C.; Rizzi, F.; Notarnicola, M.; Curri, M.L.; Giannelli, G. Exosomes for Diagnosis and Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 367. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21010367

AMA Style

Scavo MP, Depalo N, Tutino V, De Nunzio V, Ingrosso C, Rizzi F, Notarnicola M, Curri ML, Giannelli G. Exosomes for Diagnosis and Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(1):367. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21010367

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scavo, Maria P., Nicoletta Depalo, Valeria Tutino, Valentina De Nunzio, Chiara Ingrosso, Federica Rizzi, Maria Notarnicola, Maria L. Curri, and Gianluigi Giannelli. 2020. "Exosomes for Diagnosis and Therapy in Gastrointestinal Cancers" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 1: 367. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21010367

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