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Review

Function and Regulation of Ammonium Transporters in Plants

1
State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
2
College of Resources and Environment, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China
3
Agro-Tech Extension and Service Center, Zhucheng 262200, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3557; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21103557
Received: 12 April 2020 / Revised: 11 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 18 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Transport and Homeostasis in Plants)
Ammonium transporter (AMT)-mediated acquisition of ammonium nitrogen from soils is essential for the nitrogen demand of plants, especially for those plants growing in flooded or acidic soils where ammonium is dominant. Recent advances show that AMTs additionally participate in many other physiological processes such as transporting ammonium from symbiotic fungi to plants, transporting ammonium from roots to shoots, transferring ammonium in leaves and reproductive organs, or facilitating resistance to plant diseases via ammonium transport. Besides being a transporter, several AMTs are required for the root development upon ammonium exposure. To avoid the adverse effects of inadequate or excessive intake of ammonium nitrogen on plant growth and development, activities of AMTs are fine-tuned not only at the transcriptional level by the participation of at least four transcription factors, but also at protein level by phosphorylation, pH, endocytosis, and heterotrimerization. Despite these progresses, it is worth noting that stronger growth inhibition, not facilitation, unfortunately occurs when AMT overexpression lines are exposed to optimal or slightly excessive ammonium. This implies that a long road remains towards overcoming potential limiting factors and achieving AMT-facilitated yield increase to accomplish the goal of persistent yield increase under the present high nitrogen input mode in agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonium transporter; physiological roles; functional regulation; transport mechanism; yeast functional complementation; electrophysiology; genetic manipulation ammonium transporter; physiological roles; functional regulation; transport mechanism; yeast functional complementation; electrophysiology; genetic manipulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hao, D.-L.; Zhou, J.-Y.; Yang, S.-Y.; Qi, W.; Yang, K.-J.; Su, Y.-H. Function and Regulation of Ammonium Transporters in Plants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3557. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21103557

AMA Style

Hao D-L, Zhou J-Y, Yang S-Y, Qi W, Yang K-J, Su Y-H. Function and Regulation of Ammonium Transporters in Plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(10):3557. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21103557

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hao, Dong-Li, Jin-Yan Zhou, Shun-Ying Yang, Wei Qi, Ke-Jun Yang, and Yan-Hua Su. 2020. "Function and Regulation of Ammonium Transporters in Plants" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 10: 3557. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21103557

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