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Review

Regulation of Three Key Kinases of Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathway

by 1,2 and 1,2,3,*
1
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, South China Agriculture University, Guangzhou 510642, China
2
Guangdong Key Laboratory for Innovative Development and Utilization of Forest Plant Germplasm, College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China
3
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4340; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124340
Received: 1 June 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Signaling in Model Plants)
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are important plant growth hormones that regulate a wide range of plant growth and developmental processes. The BR signals are perceived by two cell surface-localized receptor kinases, Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (BRI1) and BRI1-Associated receptor Kinase (BAK1), and reach the nucleus through two master transcription factors, bri1-EMS suppressor1 (BES1) and Brassinazole-resistant1 (BZR1). The intracellular transmission of the BR signals from BRI1/BAK1 to BES1/BZR1 is inhibited by a constitutively active kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive2 (BIN2) that phosphorylates and negatively regulates BES1/BZR1. Since their initial discoveries, further studies have revealed a plethora of biochemical and cellular mechanisms that regulate their protein abundance, subcellular localizations, and signaling activities. In this review, we provide a critical analysis of the current literature concerning activation, inactivation, and other regulatory mechanisms of three key kinases of the BR signaling cascade, BRI1, BAK1, and BIN2, and discuss some unresolved controversies and outstanding questions that require further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: brassinosteroids; receptor-like kinases; GSK3-like kinases; somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases; protein phosphatases brassinosteroids; receptor-like kinases; GSK3-like kinases; somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases; protein phosphatases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mao, J.; Li, J. Regulation of Three Key Kinases of Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathway. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4340. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124340

AMA Style

Mao J, Li J. Regulation of Three Key Kinases of Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathway. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(12):4340. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124340

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mao, Juan, and Jianming Li. 2020. "Regulation of Three Key Kinases of Brassinosteroid Signaling Pathway" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 12: 4340. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124340

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