Next Issue
Volume 21, September-1
Previous Issue
Volume 21, August-1
ijms-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 21, Issue 16 (August-2 2020) – 353 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The intra- and intertumor heterogeneity of cell types and gene mutations as well as the complexity of the microenvironment contribute to limiting the efficacy of the current therapeutic options for high grade glioma. This is further complicated by the presence of several noncoding microRNA whose role is still under evaluation. In this scenario, the identification of molecular biomarkers of response and the use of a multimodal in vivo imaging approach represent unique tools for better understanding tumor features, with the final goal of identifying a cluster of patients that are potential responders to personalized medicine. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
The Identification of Metabolites and Effects of Albendazole in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5943; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165943 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 887
Abstract
Albendazole (ABZ), a widely used anthelmintic drug, enters the environment mainly via livestock excrements. To evaluate the environmental impact of ABZ, the knowledge of its uptake, effects and metabolism in all non-target organisms, including plants, is essential. The present study was designed to [...] Read more.
Albendazole (ABZ), a widely used anthelmintic drug, enters the environment mainly via livestock excrements. To evaluate the environmental impact of ABZ, the knowledge of its uptake, effects and metabolism in all non-target organisms, including plants, is essential. The present study was designed to identify the metabolic pathway of ABZ and to test potential ABZ phytotoxicity in fodder plant alfalfa, with seeds and in vitro regenerants used for these purposes. Alfalfa was chosen, as it may meet manure from ABZ-treated animals in pastures and fields. Alfalfa is often used as a feed of livestock, which might already be infected with helminths. The obtained results showed that ABZ did not inhibit alfalfa seed germination and germ growth, but evoked stress and a toxic effect in alfalfa regenerants. Alfalfa regenerants were able to uptake ABZ and transform it into 21 metabolites. UHPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed three new ABZ metabolites that have not been described yet. The discovery of the parent compound ABZ together with the anthelmintically active and instable metabolites in alfalfa leaves shows that the contact of fodder plants with ABZ-containing manure might represent not only a danger for herbivorous invertebrates, but also may cause the development of ABZ resistance in helminths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Identification of Metabolites of Xenobiotics)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
PPARδ and FOXO1 Mediate Palmitate-Induced Inhibition of Muscle Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex and CHO Oxidation, Events Reversed by Electrical Pulse Stimulation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5942; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165942 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1074
Abstract
The mechanisms behind the reduction in muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)-controlled carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation during chronic high-fat dietary intake are poorly understood, as is the basis of CHO oxidation restoration during muscle contraction. C2C12 myotubes were treated with (300 μM) palmitate or without [...] Read more.
The mechanisms behind the reduction in muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)-controlled carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation during chronic high-fat dietary intake are poorly understood, as is the basis of CHO oxidation restoration during muscle contraction. C2C12 myotubes were treated with (300 μM) palmitate or without (control) for 16 h in the presence and absence of electrical pulse stimulation (EPS, 11.5 V, 1 Hz, 2 ms). Compared to control, palmitate reduced cell glucose uptake (p < 0.05), PDC activity (p < 0.01), acetylcarnitine accumulation (p < 0.05) and glucose-derived mitochondrial ATP production (p < 0.01) and increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 4 (PDK4) (p < 0.01), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) (p < 0.01) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) (p < 0.01) proteins, and reduced the whole-cell p-FOXO1/t-FOXO1 (Forkhead Box O1) ratio (p < 0.01). EPS rescued palmitate-induced inhibition of CHO oxidation, reflected by increased glucose uptake (p < 0.01), PDC activity (p < 0.01) and glucose-derived mitochondrial ATP production (p < 0.01) compared to palmitate alone. EPS was also associated with less PDK4 (p < 0.01) and PPARδ (p < 0.01) proteins, and lower nuclear p-FOXO1/t-FOXO1 ratio normalised to the cytoplasmic ratio, but with no changes in PPARα protein. Collectively, these data suggest PPARδ, and FOXO1 transcription factors increased PDK4 protein in the presence of palmitate, which limited PDC activity and flux, and blunted CHO oxidation and glucose uptake. Conversely, EPS rescued these metabolic events by modulating the same transcription factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Central and Peripheral Molecular Mechanisms of Metabolism Regulation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Histone H1 Post-Translational Modifications: Update and Future Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5941; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165941 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Histone H1 is the most variable histone and its role at the epigenetic level is less characterized than that of core histones. In vertebrates, H1 is a multigene family, which can encode up to 11 subtypes. The H1 subtype composition is different among [...] Read more.
Histone H1 is the most variable histone and its role at the epigenetic level is less characterized than that of core histones. In vertebrates, H1 is a multigene family, which can encode up to 11 subtypes. The H1 subtype composition is different among cell types during the cell cycle and differentiation. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has added a new layer of complexity with the identification of a large number of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in H1. In this review, we summarize histone H1 PTMs from lower eukaryotes to humans, with a particular focus on mammalian PTMs. Special emphasis is made on PTMs, whose molecular function has been described. Post-translational modifications in H1 have been associated with the regulation of chromatin structure during the cell cycle as well as transcriptional activation, DNA damage response, and cellular differentiation. Additionally, PTMs in histone H1 that have been linked to diseases such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and viral infection are examined. Future perspectives and challenges in the profiling of histone H1 PTMs are also discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Casein Kinase 1α as a Regulator of Wnt-Driven Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5940; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165940 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 949
Abstract
Wnt signaling regulates numerous cellular processes during embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Underscoring this physiological importance, deregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway is associated with many disease states, including cancer. Here, we review pivotal regulatory events in the Wnt signaling pathway that [...] Read more.
Wnt signaling regulates numerous cellular processes during embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis. Underscoring this physiological importance, deregulation of the Wnt signaling pathway is associated with many disease states, including cancer. Here, we review pivotal regulatory events in the Wnt signaling pathway that drive cancer growth. We then discuss the roles of the established negative Wnt regulator, casein kinase 1α (CK1α), in Wnt signaling. Although the study of CK1α has been ongoing for several decades, the bulk of such research has focused on how it phosphorylates and regulates its various substrates. We focus here on what is known about the mechanisms controlling CK1α, including its putative regulatory proteins and alternative splicing variants. Finally, we describe the discovery and validation of a family of pharmacological CK1α activators capable of inhibiting Wnt pathway activity. One of the important advantages of CK1α activators, relative to other classes of Wnt inhibitors, is their reduced on-target toxicity, overcoming one of the major impediments to developing a clinically relevant Wnt inhibitor. Therefore, we also discuss mechanisms that regulate CK1α steady-state homeostasis, which may contribute to the deregulation of Wnt pathway activity in cancer and underlie the enhanced therapeutic index of CK1α activators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cancer)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
CA9 Silencing Promotes Mitochondrial Biogenesis, Increases Putrescine Toxicity and Decreases Cell Motility to Suppress ccRCC Progression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5939; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165939 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 937
Abstract
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a pH-regulating transmembrane protein, is highly expressed in solid tumors, and particularly in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The catalytic mechanisms of CA9 are well defined, but its roles in mediating cell migration/invasion and survival in ccRCC remain [...] Read more.
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a pH-regulating transmembrane protein, is highly expressed in solid tumors, and particularly in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The catalytic mechanisms of CA9 are well defined, but its roles in mediating cell migration/invasion and survival in ccRCC remain to be determined. Here, we confirmed that the mRNA expression of CA9 in ccRCC was significantly higher than that in para-carcinoma tissues from analysis of the datasets in The Cancer Genome Atlas. CA9 knockdown upregulated oxidative phosphorylation-associated proteins and increased mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in the reversal of the Warburg phenotype and the inhibition of cell growth. Our study revealed that CA9 knockdown upregulated mitochondrial arginase 2 (ARG2), leading to the accumulation of putrescine, which suppressed ccRCC proliferation. Surfaceomics analysis revealed that CA9 knockdown downregulated proteins associated with extracellular matrix (ECM)—receptor interaction and cell adhesion, resulting in decreased cell migration. CA9 silencing also downregulated amino acid transporters, leading to reduced cellular amino acids. Collectively, our data show that CA9 knockdown suppresses proliferation via metabolic reprogramming and reduced cell migration, reaffirming that CA9 is a potential therapeutic target for ccRCC treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeting Mitochondria in Aging and Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Role of Adipose Tissue-Derived Autotaxin, Lysophosphatidate Signaling, and Inflammation in the Progression and Treatment of Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5938; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165938 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme that produces lysophosphatidate (LPA), which signals through six G-protein coupled receptors, promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and survival from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Many cancer cells produce ATX, but breast cancer cells express little ATX. In breast tumors, ATX [...] Read more.
Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme that produces lysophosphatidate (LPA), which signals through six G-protein coupled receptors, promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and survival from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Many cancer cells produce ATX, but breast cancer cells express little ATX. In breast tumors, ATX is produced by tumor-associated stroma. Breast tumors are also surrounded by adipose tissue, which is a major bodily source of ATX. In mice, a high-fat diet increases adipocyte ATX production. ATX production in obesity is also increased because of low-level inflammation in the expanded adipose tissue. This increased ATX secretion and consequent LPA signaling is associated with decreased adiponectin production, which results in adverse metabolic profiles and glucose homeostasis. Increased ATX production by inflamed adipose tissue may explain the obesity-breast cancer association. Breast tumors produce inflammatory mediators that stimulate ATX transcription in tumor-adjacent adipose tissue. This drives a feedforward inflammatory cycle since increased LPA signaling increases production of more inflammatory mediators and cyclooxygenase-2. Inhibiting ATX activity, which has implications in breast cancer adjuvant treatments, attenuates this cycle. Targeting ATX activity and LPA signaling may potentially increase chemotherapy and radiotherapy efficacy, and decrease radiation-induced fibrosis morbidity independently of breast cancer type because most ATX is not derived from breast cancer cells. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Anterograde Neuronal Circuit Tracers Derived from Herpes Simplex Virus 1: Development, Application, and Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5937; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165937 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 880
Abstract
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has great potential to be applied as a viral tool for gene delivery or oncolysis. The broad infection tropism of HSV-1 makes it a suitable tool for targeting many different cell types, and its 150 kb double-stranded [...] Read more.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has great potential to be applied as a viral tool for gene delivery or oncolysis. The broad infection tropism of HSV-1 makes it a suitable tool for targeting many different cell types, and its 150 kb double-stranded DNA genome provides great capacity for exogenous genes. Moreover, the features of neuron infection and neuron-to-neuron spread also offer special value to neuroscience. HSV-1 strain H129, with its predominant anterograde transneuronal transmission, represents one of the most promising anterograde neuronal circuit tracers to map output neuronal pathways. Decades of development have greatly expanded the H129-derived anterograde tracing toolbox, including polysynaptic and monosynaptic tracers with various fluorescent protein labeling. These tracers have been applied to neuroanatomical studies, and have contributed to revealing multiple important neuronal circuits. However, current H129-derived tracers retain intrinsic drawbacks that limit their broad application, such as yet-to-be improved labeling intensity, potential nonspecific retrograde labeling, and high toxicity. The biological complexity of HSV-1 and its insufficiently characterized virological properties have caused difficulties in its improvement and optimization as a viral tool. In this review, we focus on the current H129-derived viral tracers and highlight strategies in which future technological development can advance its use as a tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herpes Simplex Virus: From Reactivation to Assembly)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Molecular and Cellular Factors Associated with Racial Disparity in Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5936; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165936 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated that racial differences can influence breast cancer incidence and survival rate. African American (AA) women are at two to three fold higher risk for breast cancer than other ethnic groups. AA women with aggressive breast cancers show worse prognoses [...] Read more.
Recent studies have demonstrated that racial differences can influence breast cancer incidence and survival rate. African American (AA) women are at two to three fold higher risk for breast cancer than other ethnic groups. AA women with aggressive breast cancers show worse prognoses and higher mortality rates relative to Caucasian (CA) women. Over the last few years, effective treatment strategies have reduced mortality from breast cancer. Unfortunately, the breast cancer mortality rate among AA women remains higher compared to their CA counterparts. The focus of this review is to underscore the racial differences and differential regulation/expression of genetic signatures in CA and AA women with breast cancer. Moreover, immune cell infiltration significantly affects the clinical outcome of breast cancer. Here, we have reviewed recent findings on immune cell recruitment in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and documented its association with breast cancer racial disparity. In addition, we have extensively discussed the role of cytokines, chemokines, and other cell signaling molecules among AA and CA breast cancer patients. Furthermore, we have also reviewed the distinct genetic and epigenetic changes in AA and CA patients. Overall, this review article encompasses various molecular and cellular factors associated with breast cancer disparity that affects mortality and clinical outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokines/Chemokines in Cancer Metastasis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Amorphization of Thiamine Chloride Hydrochloride: Effects of Physical State and Polymer Type on the Chemical Stability of Thiamine in Solid Dispersions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5935; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165935 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
Thiamine is an essential micronutrient, but delivery of the vitamin in supplements or foods is challenging because it is unstable under heat, alkaline pH, and processing/storage conditions. Although distributed as a crystalline ingredient, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (TClHCl) likely exists in the amorphous state, [...] Read more.
Thiamine is an essential micronutrient, but delivery of the vitamin in supplements or foods is challenging because it is unstable under heat, alkaline pH, and processing/storage conditions. Although distributed as a crystalline ingredient, thiamine chloride hydrochloride (TClHCl) likely exists in the amorphous state, specifically in supplements. Amorphous solids are generally less chemically stable than their crystalline counterparts, which is an unexplored area related to thiamine delivery. The objective of this study was to document thiamine degradation in the amorphous state. TClHCl:polymer dispersions were prepared by lyophilizing solutions containing TClHCl and amorphous polymers (pectin and PVP (poly[vinylpyrrolidone])). Samples were stored in controlled temperature (30–60 °C) and relative humidity (11%) environments for 8 weeks and monitored periodically by X-ray diffraction (to document physical state) and HPLC (to quantify degradation). Moisture sorption, glass transition temperature (Tg), intermolecular interactions, and pH were also determined. Thiamine was more labile in the amorphous state than the crystalline state and when present in lower proportions in amorphous polymer dispersions, despite increasing Tg values. Thiamine was more stable in pectin dispersions than PVP dispersions, attributed to differences in presence and extent of intermolecular interactions between TClHCl and pectin. The results of this study can be used to control thiamine degradation in food products and supplements to improve thiamine delivery and decrease rate of deficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Mechanism of B-Vitamins and Their Metabolites 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Matrix Metalloproteinases in Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5934; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165934 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, multifactorial and progressive retinal disease affecting millions of people worldwide. In developed countries, it is the leading cause of vision loss and legal blindness among the elderly. Although the pathogenesis of AMD is still barely understood, [...] Read more.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex, multifactorial and progressive retinal disease affecting millions of people worldwide. In developed countries, it is the leading cause of vision loss and legal blindness among the elderly. Although the pathogenesis of AMD is still barely understood, recent studies have reported that disorders in the regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) play an important role in its etiopathogenesis. The dynamic metabolism of the ECM is closely regulated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The present review focuses on the crucial processes that occur at the level of the Bruch’s membrane, with special emphasis on MMPs, TIMPs, and the polymorphisms associated with increased susceptibility to AMD development. A systematic literature search was performed, covering the years 1990–2020, using the following keywords: AMD, extracellular matrix, Bruch’s membrane, MMPs, TIMPs, and MMPs polymorphisms in AMD. In both early and advanced AMD, the pathological dynamic changes of ECM structural components are caused by the dysfunction of specific regulators and by the influence of other regulatory systems connected with both genetic and environmental factors. Better insight into the pathological role of MMP/TIMP complexes may lead to the development of new strategies for AMD treatment and prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Biology of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) 2.0)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
How Do Molecular Dynamics Data Complement Static Structural Data of GPCRs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5933; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165933 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1278
Abstract
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are implicated in nearly every physiological process in the human body and therefore represent an important drug targeting class. Advances in X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have provided multiple static structures of GPCRs in complex with various signaling [...] Read more.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are implicated in nearly every physiological process in the human body and therefore represent an important drug targeting class. Advances in X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) have provided multiple static structures of GPCRs in complex with various signaling partners. However, GPCR functionality is largely determined by their flexibility and ability to transition between distinct structural conformations. Due to this dynamic nature, a static snapshot does not fully explain the complexity of GPCR signal transduction. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations offer the opportunity to simulate the structural motions of biological processes at atomic resolution. Thus, this technique can incorporate the missing information on protein flexibility into experimentally solved structures. Here, we review the contribution of MD simulations to complement static structural data and to improve our understanding of GPCR physiology and pharmacology, as well as the challenges that still need to be overcome to reach the full potential of this technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computer Simulation on Membrane Receptors and Lipid Bilayers)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Deciphering SARS-CoV-2 Virologic and Immunologic Features
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5932; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165932 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4150
Abstract
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 and its associated pathology, COVID-19, have been of particular concerns these last months due to the worldwide burden they represent. The number of cases requiring intensive care being the critical point in this epidemic, a better understanding [...] Read more.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 and its associated pathology, COVID-19, have been of particular concerns these last months due to the worldwide burden they represent. The number of cases requiring intensive care being the critical point in this epidemic, a better understanding of the pathophysiology leading to these severe cases is urgently needed. Tissue lesions can be caused by the pathogen or can be driven by an overwhelmed immune response. Focusing on SARS-CoV-2, we and others have observed that this virus can trigger indeed an immune response that can be dysregulated in severe patients and leading to further injury to multiple organs. The purpose of the review is to bring to light the current knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 virologic and immunologic features. Thus, we address virus biology, life cycle, tropism for many organs and how ultimately it will affect several host biological and physiological functions, notably the immune response. Given that therapeutic avenues are now highly warranted, we also discuss the immunotherapies available to manage the infection and the clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Immunology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Necroptosis in Hepatosteatotic Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5931; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165931 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1167
Abstract
While liver transplantation remains the sole treatment option for patients with end-stage liver disease, there are numerous limitations to liver transplantation including the scarcity of donor livers and a rise in livers that are unsuitable to transplant such as those with excess steatosis. [...] Read more.
While liver transplantation remains the sole treatment option for patients with end-stage liver disease, there are numerous limitations to liver transplantation including the scarcity of donor livers and a rise in livers that are unsuitable to transplant such as those with excess steatosis. Fatty livers are susceptible to ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury during transplantation and IR injury results in primary graft non-function, graft failure and mortality. Recent studies have described new cell death pathways which differ from the traditional apoptotic pathway. Necroptosis, a regulated form of cell death, has been associated with hepatic IR injury. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed-lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL) are thought to be instrumental in the execution of necroptosis. The study of hepatic necroptosis and potential therapeutic approaches to attenuate IR injury will be a key factor in improving our knowledge regarding liver transplantation with fatty donor livers. In this review, we focus on the effect of hepatic steatosis during liver transplantation as well as molecular mechanisms of necroptosis and its involvement during liver IR injury. We also discuss the immune responses triggered during necroptosis and examine the utility of necroptosis inhibitors as potential therapeutic approaches to alleviate IR injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Organ Preservation and Hepatoprotection)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Interactions between the Intrinsically Disordered Regions of hnRNP-A2 and TDP-43 Accelerate TDP-43′s Conformational Transition
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5930; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165930 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 936
Abstract
Most biological functions involve protein–protein interactions. Our understanding of these interactions is based mainly on those of structured proteins, because encounters between intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or proteins with intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are much less studied, regardless of the fact that more [...] Read more.
Most biological functions involve protein–protein interactions. Our understanding of these interactions is based mainly on those of structured proteins, because encounters between intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or proteins with intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) are much less studied, regardless of the fact that more than half eukaryotic proteins contain IDRs. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are a large family whose members almost all have IDRs in addition to RNA binding domains. These IDRs, having low sequence similarity, interact, but structural details on these interactions are still lacking. Here, using the IDRs of two RBPs (hnRNA-A2 and TDP-43) as a model, we demonstrate that the rate at which TDP-43′s IDR undergoes the neurodegenerative disease related α-helix-to-β-sheet transition increases in relation to the amount of hnRNP-A2′s IDR that is present. There are more than 1500 RBPs in human cells and most of them have IDRs. RBPs often join the same complexes to regulate genes. In addition to the structured RNA-recognition motifs, our study demonstrates a general mechanism through which RBPs may regulate each other’s functions through their IDRs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Biology of Proteins and Peptides)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Taste the Pain: The Role of TRP Channels in Pain and Taste Perception
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5929; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165929 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a superfamily of cation transmembrane proteins that are expressed in many tissues and respond to many sensory stimuli. TRP channels play a role in sensory signaling for taste, thermosensation, mechanosensation, and nociception. Activation of TRP channels (e.g., [...] Read more.
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a superfamily of cation transmembrane proteins that are expressed in many tissues and respond to many sensory stimuli. TRP channels play a role in sensory signaling for taste, thermosensation, mechanosensation, and nociception. Activation of TRP channels (e.g., TRPM5) in taste receptors by food/chemicals (e.g., capsaicin) is essential in the acquisition of nutrients, which fuel metabolism, growth, and development. Pain signals from these nociceptors are essential for harm avoidance. Dysfunctional TRP channels have been associated with neuropathic pain, inflammation, and reduced ability to detect taste stimuli. Humans have long recognized the relationship between taste and pain. However, the mechanisms and relationship among these taste–pain sensorial experiences are not fully understood. This article provides a narrative review of literature examining the role of TRP channels on taste and pain perception. Genomic variability in the TRPV1 gene has been associated with alterations in various pain conditions. Moreover, polymorphisms of the TRPV1 gene have been associated with alterations in salty taste sensitivity and salt preference. Studies of genetic variations in TRP genes or modulation of TRP pathways may increase our understanding of the shared biological mediators of pain and taste, leading to therapeutic interventions to treat many diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Tracking Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants in Diarrheal Pathogens: A Cross-Institutional Pilot Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5928; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165928 - 18 Aug 2020
Viewed by 823
Abstract
Infectious diarrhea affects over four billion individuals annually and causes over a million deaths each year. Though not typically prescribed for treatment of uncomplicated diarrheal disease, antimicrobials serve as a critical part of the armamentarium used to treat severe or persistent cases. Due [...] Read more.
Infectious diarrhea affects over four billion individuals annually and causes over a million deaths each year. Though not typically prescribed for treatment of uncomplicated diarrheal disease, antimicrobials serve as a critical part of the armamentarium used to treat severe or persistent cases. Due to widespread over- and misuse of antimicrobials, there has been an alarming increase in global resistance, for which a standardized methodology for geographic surveillance would be highly beneficial. To demonstrate that a standardized methodology could be used to provide molecular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, we initiated a pilot study to test 130 diarrheal pathogens (Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Shigella spp.) from the USA, Peru, Egypt, Cambodia, and Kenya for the presence/absence of over 200 AMR determinants. We detected a total of 55 different determinants conferring resistance to ten different categories of antimicrobials: genes detected in ≥ 25 samples included blaTEM, tet(A), tet(B), mac(A), mac(B), aadA1/A2, strA, strB, sul1, sul2, qacEΔ1, cmr, and dfrA1. The number of determinants per strain ranged from none (several Campylobacter spp. strains) to sixteen, with isolates from Egypt harboring a wider variety and greater number of genes per isolate than other sites. Two samples harbored carbapenemase genes, blaOXA-48 or blaNDM. Genes conferring resistance to azithromycin (ere(A), mph(A)/mph(K), erm(B)), a first-line therapeutic for severe diarrhea, were detected in over 10% of all Enterobacteriaceae tested: these included >25% of the Enterobacteriaceae from Egypt and Kenya. Forty-six percent of the Egyptian Enterobacteriaceae harbored genes encoding CTX-M-1 or CTX-M-9 families of extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Overall, the data provide cross-comparable resistome information to establish regional trends in support of international surveillance activities and potentially guide geospatially informed medical care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Resistance Mechanisms in Bacteria)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Hypothyroidism-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (HIN): Mechanisms and Emerging Therapeutic Options
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5927; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165927 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging worldwide problem and its association with other metabolic pathologies has been one of the main research topics in the last decade. The aim of this review article is to provide an up-to-date correlation between hypothyroidism [...] Read more.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging worldwide problem and its association with other metabolic pathologies has been one of the main research topics in the last decade. The aim of this review article is to provide an up-to-date correlation between hypothyroidism and NAFLD. We followed evidence regarding epidemiological impact, immunopathogenesis, thyroid hormone-liver axis, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation. After evaluating the influence of thyroid hormone imbalance on liver structure and function, the latest studies have focused on developing new therapeutic strategies. Thyroid hormones (THs) along with their metabolites and thyroid hormone receptor β (THR-β) agonist are the main therapeutic targets. Other liver specific analogs and alternative treatments have been tested in the last few years as potential NAFLD therapy. Finally, we concluded that further research is necessary as well as the need for an extensive evaluation of thyroid function in NAFLD/NASH patients, aiming for better management and outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thyroid Hormones and NAFLD: New Insights)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
The Significance of Flavonoids in the Process of Biological Nitrogen Fixation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5926; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165926 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 947
Abstract
Nitrogen is essential for the growth of plants. The ability of some plant species to obtain all or part of their requirement for nitrogen by interacting with microbial symbionts has conferred a major competitive advantage over those plants unable to do so. The [...] Read more.
Nitrogen is essential for the growth of plants. The ability of some plant species to obtain all or part of their requirement for nitrogen by interacting with microbial symbionts has conferred a major competitive advantage over those plants unable to do so. The function of certain flavonoids (a group of secondary metabolites produced by the plant phenylpropanoid pathway) within the process of biological nitrogen fixation carried out by Rhizobium spp. has been thoroughly researched. However, their significance to biological nitrogen fixation carried out during the actinorhizal and arbuscular mycorrhiza–Rhizobium–legume interaction remains unclear. This review catalogs and contextualizes the role of flavonoids in the three major types of root endosymbiosis responsible for biological nitrogen fixation. The importance of gaining an understanding of the molecular basis of endosymbiosis signaling, as well as the potential of and challenges facing modifying flavonoids either quantitatively and/or qualitatively are discussed, along with proposed strategies for both optimizing the process of nodulation and widening the plant species base, which can support nodulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
CD163 as a Biomarker in Colorectal Cancer: The Expression on Circulating Monocytes and Tumor-Associated Macrophages, and the Soluble Form in the Blood
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5925; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165925 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 871
Abstract
The macrophage-associated molecule CD163 has been reported as a prognostic biomarker in different cancer types, but its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. We studied CD163 in the tumor microenvironment and circulation of patients with CRC in relation to clinicopathological parameters. An [...] Read more.
The macrophage-associated molecule CD163 has been reported as a prognostic biomarker in different cancer types, but its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. We studied CD163 in the tumor microenvironment and circulation of patients with CRC in relation to clinicopathological parameters. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the serum sCD163 levels and multiparameter flow cytometry was used to study the peripheral blood monocytes and their CD163 expression in CRC patients (N = 78) and healthy donors (N = 50). The distribution of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) was studied in primary colorectal tumors with multiplex immunofluorescence. We showed that CRC patients with above-median sCD163 level had a shorter overall survival (OS, p = 0.035) as well as disease-free survival (DFS, p = 0.005). The above-median sCD163 remained significantly associated with a shorter DFS in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Moreover, a shorter OS was observed in CRC patients with an above-median total monocyte percentage (p = 0.007). The number and phenotype of the stromal and intraepithelial TAMs in colorectal tumors were not associated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, sCD163 and monocytes in the circulation may be potential prognostic biomarkers in CRC patients, whereas TAMs in the tumor showed no association with clinical outcome. Thus, our results emphasize the importance of the innate systemic immune response in CRC disease progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Molecular Oncology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Osteoclasts’ Ability to Generate Trenches Rather Than Pits Depends on High Levels of Active Cathepsin K and Efficient Clearance of Resorption Products
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5924; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165924 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 957
Abstract
Until recently, it was well-accepted that osteoclasts resorb bone according to the resorption cycle model. This model is based on the assumption that osteoclasts are immobile during bone erosion, allowing the actin ring to be firmly attached and thereby provide an effective seal [...] Read more.
Until recently, it was well-accepted that osteoclasts resorb bone according to the resorption cycle model. This model is based on the assumption that osteoclasts are immobile during bone erosion, allowing the actin ring to be firmly attached and thereby provide an effective seal encircling the resorptive compartment. However, through time-lapse, it was recently documented that osteoclasts making elongated resorption cavities and trenches move across the bone surface while efficiently resorbing bone. However, it was also shown that osteoclasts making rounded cavities and pits indeed resorb bone while they are immobile. Only little is known about what distinguishes these two different resorption modes. This is of both basic and clinical interest because these resorption modes are differently sensitive to drugs and are affected by the gender as well as age of the donor. In the present manuscript we show that: 1. levels of active cathepsin K determine the switch from pit to trench mode; 2. pit and trench mode depend on clathrin-mediated endocytosis; and 3. a mechanism integrating release of resorption products and membrane/integrin recycling is required for prolongation of trench mode. Our study therefore contributes to an improved understanding of the molecular and cellular determinants for the two osteoclastic bone resorption modes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights in Osteoclasts’ Biology)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Oxidant-Induced Alterations in the Adipocyte Transcriptome: Role of the Na,K-ATPase Oxidant Amplification Loop
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5923; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165923 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
(1) Background: Recently we have noted that adipocyte specific expression of the peptide, NaKtide, which was developed to attenuate the Na,K-ATPase oxidant amplification loop, could ameliorate the phenotypical features of uremic cardiomyopathy. We performed this study to better characterize the cellular transcriptomes that [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Recently we have noted that adipocyte specific expression of the peptide, NaKtide, which was developed to attenuate the Na,K-ATPase oxidant amplification loop, could ameliorate the phenotypical features of uremic cardiomyopathy. We performed this study to better characterize the cellular transcriptomes that are involved in various biological pathways associated with adipocyte function occurring with renal failure. (2) Methods: RNAseq was performed on the visceral adipose tissue of animals subjected to partial nephrectomy. Specific expression of NaKtide in adipocytes was achieved using an adiponectin promoter. To better understand the cause of gene expression changes in vivo, 3T3L1 adipocytes were exposed to indoxyl sulfate (IS) or oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), with and without pNaKtide (the cell permeant form of NaKtide). RNAseq was also performed on these samples. (3) Results: We noted a large number of adipocyte genes were altered in experimental renal failure. Adipocyte specific NaKtide expression reversed most of these abnormalities. High correlation with some cardiac specific phenotypical features was noted amongst groups of these genes. In the murine adipocytes, both IS and oxLDL induced similar pathway changes as were noted in vivo, and pNaKtide appeared to reverse these changes. Network analysis demonstrated tremendous similarities between the network revealed by gene expression analysis with IS compared with oxLDL, and the combined in vitro dataset was noted to also have considerable similarity to that seen in vivo with experimental renal failure. (4) Conclusions: This study suggests that the myriad of phenotypical features seen with experimental renal failure may be fundamentally linked to oxidant stress within adipocytes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiotonic Steroids: From Toxins to Hormones)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
The Role of Atypical Cannabinoid Ligands O-1602 and O-1918 on Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis with a Focus on Obesity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5922; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165922 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 752
Abstract
O-1602 and O-1918 are atypical cannabinoid ligands for GPR55 and GPR18, which may be novel pharmaceuticals for the treatment of obesity by targeting energy homeostasis regulation in skeletal muscle. This study aimed to determine the effect of O-1602 or O-1918 on markers of [...] Read more.
O-1602 and O-1918 are atypical cannabinoid ligands for GPR55 and GPR18, which may be novel pharmaceuticals for the treatment of obesity by targeting energy homeostasis regulation in skeletal muscle. This study aimed to determine the effect of O-1602 or O-1918 on markers of oxidative capacity and fatty acid metabolism in the skeletal muscle. Diet-induced obese (DIO) male Sprague Dawley rats were administered a daily intraperitoneal injection of O-1602, O-1918 or vehicle for 6 weeks. C2C12 myotubes were treated with O-1602 or O-1918 and human primary myotubes were treated with O-1918. GPR18 mRNA was expressed in the skeletal muscle of DIO rats and was up-regulated in red gastrocnemius when compared with white gastrocnemius. O-1602 had no effect on mRNA expression on selected markers for oxidative capacity, fatty acid metabolism or adiponectin signalling in gastrocnemius from DIO rats or in C2C12 myotubes, while APPL2 mRNA was up-regulated in white gastrocnemius in DIO rats treated with O-1918. In C2C12 myotubes treated with O-1918, PGC1α, NFATc1 and PDK4 mRNA were up-regulated. There were no effects of O-1918 on mRNA expression in human primary myotubes derived from obese and obese T2DM individuals. In conclusion, O-1602 does not alter mRNA expression of key pathways important for skeletal muscle energy homeostasis in obesity. In contrast, O-1918 appears to alter markers of oxidative capacity and fatty acid metabolism in C2C12 myotubes only. GPR18 is expressed in DIO rat skeletal muscle and future work could focus on selectively modulating GPR18 in a tissue-specific manner, which may be beneficial for obesity-targeted therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peripheral Targets in Obesity: Pathologies and Therapeutics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
P38 Regulates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizure and Neuronal Firing via Kv4.2 Phosphorylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5921; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165921 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 722
Abstract
The subthreshold, transient A-type K+ current is a vital regulator of the excitability of neurons throughout the brain. In mammalian hippocampal pyramidal neurons, this current is carried primarily by ion channels comprising Kv4.2 α-subunits. These channels occupy the somatodendritic domains of these [...] Read more.
The subthreshold, transient A-type K+ current is a vital regulator of the excitability of neurons throughout the brain. In mammalian hippocampal pyramidal neurons, this current is carried primarily by ion channels comprising Kv4.2 α-subunits. These channels occupy the somatodendritic domains of these principle excitatory neurons and thus regulate membrane voltage relevant to the input–output efficacy of these cells. Owing to their robust control of membrane excitability and ubiquitous expression in the hippocampus, their dysfunction can alter network stability in a manner that manifests in recurrent seizures. Indeed, growing evidence implicates these channels in intractable epilepsies of the temporal lobe, which underscores the importance of determining the molecular mechanisms underlying their regulation and contribution to pathologies. Here, we describe the role of p38 kinase phosphorylation of a C-terminal motif in Kv4.2 in modulating hippocampal neuronal excitability and behavioral seizure strength. Using a combination of biochemical, single-cell electrophysiology, and in vivo seizure techniques, we show that kainic acid-induced seizure induces p38-mediated phosphorylation of Thr607 in Kv4.2 in a time-dependent manner. The pharmacological and genetic disruption of this process reduces neuronal excitability and dampens seizure intensity, illuminating a cellular cascade that may be targeted for therapeutic intervention to mitigate seizure intensity and progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue P38 Signaling Pathway)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Ursolic Acid-Based Derivatives as Potential Anti-Cancer Agents: An Update
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5920; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165920 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Ursolic acid is a pharmacologically active pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from medicinal plants, fruit, and vegetables. The pharmacological activities of ursolic acid have been extensively studied over the past few years and various reports have revealed that ursolic acid has multiple biological activities, which [...] Read more.
Ursolic acid is a pharmacologically active pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from medicinal plants, fruit, and vegetables. The pharmacological activities of ursolic acid have been extensively studied over the past few years and various reports have revealed that ursolic acid has multiple biological activities, which include anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, etc. In terms of cancer treatment, ursolic acid interacts with a number of molecular targets that play an essential role in many cell signaling pathways. It suppresses transformation, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis of tumor cells. Although ursolic acid has many benefits, its therapeutic applications in clinical medicine are limited by its poor bioavailability and absorption. To overcome such disadvantages, researchers around the globe have designed and developed synthetic ursolic acid derivatives with enhanced therapeutic effects by structurally modifying the parent skeleton of ursolic acid. These structurally modified compounds display enhanced therapeutic effects when compared to ursolic acid. This present review summarizes various synthesized derivatives of ursolic acid with anti-cancer activity which were reported from 2015 to date. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Editorial
Basic and Translational Models of Cooperative Oncogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5919; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165919 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 649
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Basic and Translational Models of Cooperative Oncogenesis)
Review
PD-L1 in Systemic Immunity: Unraveling Its Contribution to PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade Immunotherapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5918; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165918 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 911
Abstract
The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 axis completely changed anticancer treatment strategies. However, despite the significant improvement in overall survival and progression-free survival of patients undergoing these immunotherapy treatments, the only clinically accepted biomarker with some prediction capabilities for the outcome of [...] Read more.
The use of monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 axis completely changed anticancer treatment strategies. However, despite the significant improvement in overall survival and progression-free survival of patients undergoing these immunotherapy treatments, the only clinically accepted biomarker with some prediction capabilities for the outcome of the treatment is PD-L1 expression in tumor biopsies. Nevertheless, even when having PD-L1-positive tumors, numerous patients do not respond to these treatments. Considering the high cost of these therapies and the risk of immune-related adverse events during therapy, it is necessary to identify additional biomarkers that would facilitate stratifying patients in potential responders and non-responders before the start of immunotherapies. Here, we review the utility of PD-L1 expression not only in tumor cells but in immune system cells and their influence on the antitumor activity of immune cell subsets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue PD-L1, a Master Regulator of Immunity 2.0)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Evaluation of the Individual and Combined Toxicity of Fumonisin Mycotoxins in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5917; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165917 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
Fumonisin contaminates food and feed extensively throughout the world, causing chronic and acute toxicity in human and animals. Currently, studies on the toxicology of fumonisins mainly focus on fumonisin B1 (FB1). Considering that FB1, fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) could coexist [...] Read more.
Fumonisin contaminates food and feed extensively throughout the world, causing chronic and acute toxicity in human and animals. Currently, studies on the toxicology of fumonisins mainly focus on fumonisin B1 (FB1). Considering that FB1, fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) could coexist in food and feed, a study regarding a single toxin, FB1, may not completely reflect the toxicity of fumonisin. The gastrointestinal tract is usually exposed to these dietary toxins. In our study, the human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) was used as in vitro model to evaluate the toxicity of fumonisin. Firstly, we found that they could cause a decrease in cell viability, and increase in membrane leakage, cell death and the induction of expression of markers for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Their toxicity potency rank is FB1 > FB2 >> FB3. The results also showed that the synergistic effect appeared in the combinations of FB1 + FB2 and FB1 + FB3. Nevertheless, the combinations of FB2 + FB3 and FB1 + FB2 + FB3 showed a synergistic effect at low concentration and an antagonistic effect at high concentration. We also found that myriocin (ISP-1) could alleviate the cytotoxicity induced by fumonisin in GES-1 cells. Finally, this study may help to determine or optimize the legal limits and risk assessment method of mycotoxins in food and feed and provide a potential method to block the fumonisin toxicity. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Toll-Like Receptor 5 of Golden Pompano Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758): Characterization, Promoter Activity and Functional Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5916; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165916 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 800
Abstract
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as important pattern recognition receptors, represent a significant component of fish immune systems and play an important role in resisting the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms. The TLR5 subfamily contains two types of TLR5, the membrane form of TLR5 (TLR5M) and [...] Read more.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as important pattern recognition receptors, represent a significant component of fish immune systems and play an important role in resisting the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms. The TLR5 subfamily contains two types of TLR5, the membrane form of TLR5 (TLR5M) and the soluble form of TLR5 (TLR5S), whose detailed functions have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, we first identified two genes, TLR5M (ToTLR5M) and TLR5S (ToTLR5S), from golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus). The full-length ToTLR5M and ToTLR5S cDNA are 3644 bp and 2329 bp, respectively, comprising an open reading frame (ORF) of 2673 bp, encoding 890 amino acids, and an ORF of 1935 bp, encoding 644 amino acids. Both the ToTLR5s possess representative TLR domains; however, only ToTLR5M has transmembrane and intracellular TIR domains. Moreover, the transcription of two ToTLR5s was significantly upregulated after stimulation by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and flagellin in both immune-related tissues (liver, intestine, blood, kidney, and skin) and nonimmune-related tissue (muscle). Furthermore, the results of bioinformatic and promoter analysis show that the transcription factors GATA-1 (GATA Binding Protein 1), C/EBPalpha (CCAAT Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha), and ICSBP (Interferon (IFN) consensus sequence binding protein) may play a positive role in moderating the expression of two ToTLR5s. Overexpression of ToTLR5M and ToTLR5S notably increases NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-B) activity. Additionally, the binding assay revealed that two rToTLR5s can bind specifically to bacteria and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) containing Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus, Escherichia coli, Photobacterium damselae, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, LPS, poly(I:C), flagellin, and peptidoglycan (PGN). In conclusion, the present study may help to elucidate the function of ToTLR5M/S and clarify their possible roles in the fish immune response to bacterial infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Biochemical Characterization and Crystal Structure of a Novel NAD+-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5915; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165915 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 716
Abstract
The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum originated from a series of secondary symbiotic events and has been used as a model organism for studying diatom biology. A novel type II homodimeric isocitrate dehydrogenase from P. tricornutum (PtIDH1) was expressed, purified, and identified in detail [...] Read more.
The marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum originated from a series of secondary symbiotic events and has been used as a model organism for studying diatom biology. A novel type II homodimeric isocitrate dehydrogenase from P. tricornutum (PtIDH1) was expressed, purified, and identified in detail through enzymatic characterization. Kinetic analysis showed that PtIDH1 is NAD+-dependent and has no detectable activity with NADP+. The catalytic efficiency of PtIDH1 for NAD+ is 0.16 μM−1·s−1 and 0.09 μM−1·s−1 in the presence of Mn2+ and Mg2+, respectively. Unlike other bacterial homodimeric NAD-IDHs, PtIDH1 activity was allosterically regulated by the isocitrate. Furthermore, the dimeric structure of PtIDH1 was determined at 2.8 Å resolution, and each subunit was resolved into four domains, similar to the eukaryotic homodimeric NADP-IDH in the type II subfamily. Interestingly, a unique and novel C-terminal EF-hand domain was first defined in PtIDH1. Deletion of this domain disrupted the intact dimeric structure and activity. Mutation of the four Ca2+-binding sites in the EF-hand significantly reduced the calcium tolerance of PtIDH1. Thus, we suggest that the EF-hand domain could be involved in the dimerization and Ca2+-coordination of PtIDH1. The current report, on the first structure of type II eukaryotic NAD-IDH, provides new information for further investigation of the evolution of the IDH family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of the Development of Sepal Morphology in Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5914; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21165914 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 877
Abstract
Sepal is an important component of the tomato flower and fruit that typically protects the flower in bud and functions as a support for petals and fruits. Moreover, sepal appearance influences the commercial property of tomato nowadays. However, the phenotype information and development [...] Read more.
Sepal is an important component of the tomato flower and fruit that typically protects the flower in bud and functions as a support for petals and fruits. Moreover, sepal appearance influences the commercial property of tomato nowadays. However, the phenotype information and development mechanism of the natural variation of sepal morphology in the tomato is still largely unexplored. To study the developmental mechanism and to determine key genes related to downward sepal in the tomato, we compared the transcriptomes of sepals between downward sepal (dsp) mutation and the wild-type by RNA sequencing and found that the differentially expressed genes were dominantly related to cell expansion, auxin, gibberellins and cytokinin. dsp mutation affected cell size and auxin, and gibberellins and cytokinin contents in sepals. The results showed that cell enlargement or abnormal cell expansion in the adaxial part of sepals in dsp. As reported, auxin, gibberellins and cytokinin were important factors for cell expansion. Hence, dsp mutation regulated cell expansion to control sepal morphology, and auxin, gibberellins and cytokinin may mediate this process. One ARF gene and nine SAUR genes were dramatically upregulated in the sepal of the dsp mutant, whereas seven AUX/IAA genes were significantly downregulated in the sepal of dsp mutant. Further bioinformatic analyses implied that seven AUX/IAA genes might function as negative regulators, while one ARF gene and nine SAUR genes might serve as positive regulators of auxin signal transduction, thereby contributing to cell expansion in dsp sepal. Thus, our data suggest that 17 auxin-responsive genes are involved in downward sepal formation in the tomato. This study provides valuable information for dissecting the molecular mechanism of sepal morphology control in the tomato. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Genetics and Molecular Breeding in Plants)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Back to TopTop