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Melanogenic Properties and Expression Profiles of Melanogenic Paracrine Molecules in Riehl’s Melanosis
Review

Elucidation of Melanogenesis Cascade for Identifying Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Approach of Pigmentary Disorders and Melanoma

1
Department of Dermatology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8543, Hokkaido, Japan
2
Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
3
Department of Pathology, JR Sapporo Hospital, Sapporo 060-0033, Hokkaido, Japan
4
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8556, Hokkaido, Japan
5
Institute of Dermatology & Cutaneous Sciences, Sapporo 060-0042, Hokkaido, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21176129
Received: 2 August 2020 / Revised: 22 August 2020 / Accepted: 22 August 2020 / Published: 25 August 2020
Melanogenesis is the biological and biochemical process of melanin and melanosome biosynthesis. Melanin is formed by enzymic reactions of tyrosinase family proteins that convert tyrosine to form brown-black eumelanin and yellow-red pheomelanin within melanosomal compartments in melanocytes, following the cascades of events interacting with a series of autocrine and paracrine signals. Fully melanized melanosomes are delivered to keratinocytes of the skin and hair. The symbiotic relation of a melanocyte and an associated pool of keratinocytes is called epidermal melanin unit (EMU). Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) plays a vital role in melanocyte development and differentiation. MITF regulates expression of numerous pigmentation genes for promoting melanocyte differentiation, as well as fundamental genes for maintaining cell homeostasis. Diseases involving alterations of EMU show various forms of pigmentation phenotypes. This review introduces four major topics of melanogenesis cascade that include (1) melanocyte development and differentiation, (2) melanogenesis and intracellular trafficking for melanosome biosynthesis, (3) melanin pigmentation and pigment-type switching, and (4) development of a novel therapeutic approach for malignant melanoma by elucidation of melanogenesis cascade. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanogenesis; tyrosinase; tyrosinase related protein (TYRP); vesicular transport; melanosome; eumelanin; pheomelanin; pigment-type switching; hypomelanosis; melanoma melanogenesis; tyrosinase; tyrosinase related protein (TYRP); vesicular transport; melanosome; eumelanin; pheomelanin; pigment-type switching; hypomelanosis; melanoma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hida, T.; Kamiya, T.; Kawakami, A.; Ogino, J.; Sohma, H.; Uhara, H.; Jimbow, K. Elucidation of Melanogenesis Cascade for Identifying Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Approach of Pigmentary Disorders and Melanoma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6129. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21176129

AMA Style

Hida T, Kamiya T, Kawakami A, Ogino J, Sohma H, Uhara H, Jimbow K. Elucidation of Melanogenesis Cascade for Identifying Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Approach of Pigmentary Disorders and Melanoma. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(17):6129. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21176129

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hida, Tokimasa, Takafumi Kamiya, Akinori Kawakami, Jiro Ogino, Hitoshi Sohma, Hisashi Uhara, and Kowichi Jimbow. 2020. "Elucidation of Melanogenesis Cascade for Identifying Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Approach of Pigmentary Disorders and Melanoma" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 17: 6129. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21176129

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