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Review

Neuroinflammatory Mechanisms in Ischemic Stroke: Focus on Cardioembolic Stroke, Background, and Therapeutic Approaches

1
U.O.C di Medicina Interna con Stroke Care, Dipartimento di Promozione della Salute, Materno-Infantile, di Medicina Interna e Specialistica di Eccellenza “G. D’Alessandro”, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
2
Molecular and Clinical Medicine PhD Programme, University of Palermo, 90127 Palermo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6454; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186454
Received: 10 August 2020 / Revised: 29 August 2020 / Accepted: 2 September 2020 / Published: 4 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunoinflammatory Background of Neuronal Damage in Stroke)
One of the most important causes of neurological morbidity and mortality in the world is ischemic stroke. It can be a result of multiple events such as embolism with a cardiac origin, occlusion of small vessels in the brain, and atherosclerosis affecting the cerebral circulation. Increasing evidence shows the intricate function played by the immune system in the pathophysiological variations that take place after cerebral ischemic injury. Following the ischemic cerebral harm, we can observe consequent neuroinflammation that causes additional damage provoking the death of the cells; on the other hand, it also plays a beneficial role in stimulating remedial action. Immune mediators are the origin of signals with a proinflammatory position that can boost the cells in the brain and promote the penetration of numerous inflammatory cytotypes (various subtypes of T cells, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, and different inflammatory cells) within the area affected by ischemia; this process is responsible for further ischemic damage of the brain. This inflammatory process seems to involve both the cerebral tissue and the whole organism in cardioembolic stroke, the stroke subtype that is associated with more severe brain damage and a consequent worse outcome (more disability, higher mortality). In this review, the authors want to present an overview of the present learning of the mechanisms of inflammation that takes place in the cerebral tissue and the role of the immune system involved in ischemic stroke, focusing on cardioembolic stroke and its potential treatment strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: ischemic stroke; cardiac embolism; neuroinflammation ischemic stroke; cardiac embolism; neuroinflammation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maida, C.D.; Norrito, R.L.; Daidone, M.; Tuttolomondo, A.; Pinto, A. Neuroinflammatory Mechanisms in Ischemic Stroke: Focus on Cardioembolic Stroke, Background, and Therapeutic Approaches. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6454. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186454

AMA Style

Maida CD, Norrito RL, Daidone M, Tuttolomondo A, Pinto A. Neuroinflammatory Mechanisms in Ischemic Stroke: Focus on Cardioembolic Stroke, Background, and Therapeutic Approaches. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(18):6454. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186454

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maida, Carlo D., Rosario L. Norrito, Mario Daidone, Antonino Tuttolomondo, and Antonio Pinto. 2020. "Neuroinflammatory Mechanisms in Ischemic Stroke: Focus on Cardioembolic Stroke, Background, and Therapeutic Approaches" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 18: 6454. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186454

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