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Activate or Inhibit? Implications of Autophagy Modulation as a Therapeutic Strategy for Alzheimer’s Disease

1
Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer’s Disease Research and Care, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
2
Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, Centre for Medical Research, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia
3
Perron Institute for Neurological and Translational Science, Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia
4
Centre for Molecular Medicine and Innovative Therapeutics, Murdoch University, Health Research Building, Discovery Way, Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia
5
School of Biomedical Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
6
Alzheimer’s Australia Research Foundation, Nedlands, WA, 6009, Australia
7
School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health and Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6107, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6739; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186739
Received: 17 July 2020 / Revised: 1 September 2020 / Accepted: 4 September 2020 / Published: 14 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanism of Alzheimer's Disease II)
Neurodegenerative diseases result in a range of conditions depending on the type of proteinopathy, genes affected or the location of the degeneration in the brain. Proteinopathies such as senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain are prominent features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Autophagy is a highly regulated mechanism of eliminating dysfunctional organelles and proteins, and plays an important role in removing these pathogenic intracellular protein aggregates, not only in AD, but also in other neurodegenerative diseases. Activating autophagy is gaining interest as a potential therapeutic strategy for chronic diseases featuring protein aggregation and misfolding, including AD. Although autophagy activation is a promising intervention, over-activation of autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases that display impaired lysosomal clearance may accelerate pathology, suggesting that the success of any autophagy-based intervention is dependent on lysosomal clearance being functional. Additionally, the effects of autophagy activation may vary significantly depending on the physiological state of the cell, especially during proteotoxic stress and ageing. Growing evidence seems to favour a strategy of enhancing the efficacy of autophagy by preventing or reversing the impairments of the specific processes that are disrupted. Therefore, it is essential to understand the underlying causes of the autophagy defect in different neurodegenerative diseases to explore possible therapeutic approaches. This review will focus on the role of autophagy during stress and ageing, consequences that are linked to its activation and caveats in modulating this pathway as a treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Keywords: beta amyloid; autophagy; clearance; toxicity; lysosome; Alzheimer’s disease; ageing; stress response; apoptosis Keywords: beta amyloid; autophagy; clearance; toxicity; lysosome; Alzheimer’s disease; ageing; stress response; apoptosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Krishnan, S.; Shrestha, Y.; Jayatunga, D.P.W.; Rea, S.; Martins, R.; Bharadwaj, P. Activate or Inhibit? Implications of Autophagy Modulation as a Therapeutic Strategy for Alzheimer’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6739. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186739

AMA Style

Krishnan S, Shrestha Y, Jayatunga DPW, Rea S, Martins R, Bharadwaj P. Activate or Inhibit? Implications of Autophagy Modulation as a Therapeutic Strategy for Alzheimer’s Disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(18):6739. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186739

Chicago/Turabian Style

Krishnan, Sharmeelavathi; Shrestha, Yasaswi; Jayatunga, Dona P.W.; Rea, Sarah; Martins, Ralph; Bharadwaj, Prashant. 2020. "Activate or Inhibit? Implications of Autophagy Modulation as a Therapeutic Strategy for Alzheimer’s Disease" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 18: 6739. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186739

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