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Recent Advances in Cell-Based Therapies for Ischemic Stroke
Review

Pleiotropic Effects of Exosomes as a Therapy for Stroke Recovery

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6894; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186894
Received: 29 August 2020 / Revised: 16 September 2020 / Accepted: 17 September 2020 / Published: 20 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroregeneration and Brain Repair after Stroke)
Stroke is the leading cause of disability, and stroke survivors suffer from long-term sequelae even after receiving recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy and endovascular intracranial thrombectomy. Increasing evidence suggests that exosomes, nano-sized extracellular membrane vesicles, enhance neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and axonal outgrowth, all the while suppressing inflammatory reactions, thereby enhancing functional recovery after stroke. A systematic literature review to study the association of stroke recovery with exosome therapy was carried out, analyzing species, stroke model, source of exosomes, behavioral analyses, and outcome data, as well as molecular mechanisms. Thirteen studies were included in the present systematic review. In the majority of studies, exosomes derived from mesenchymal stromal cells or stem cells were administered intravenously within 24 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, showing a significant improvement of neurological severity and motor functions. Specific microRNAs and molecules were identified by mechanistic investigations, and their amplification was shown to further enhance therapeutic effects, including neurogenesis, angiogenesis, axonal outgrowth, and synaptogenesis. Overall, this review addresses the current advances in exosome therapy for stroke recovery in preclinical studies, which can hopefully be preparatory steps for the future development of clinical trials involving stroke survivors to improve functional outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ischemic stroke; exosomes; recovery; axonal outgrowth; neurogenesis; mesenchymal stromal cells ischemic stroke; exosomes; recovery; axonal outgrowth; neurogenesis; mesenchymal stromal cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ueno, Y.; Hira, K.; Miyamoto, N.; Kijima, C.; Inaba, T.; Hattori, N. Pleiotropic Effects of Exosomes as a Therapy for Stroke Recovery. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6894. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186894

AMA Style

Ueno Y, Hira K, Miyamoto N, Kijima C, Inaba T, Hattori N. Pleiotropic Effects of Exosomes as a Therapy for Stroke Recovery. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(18):6894. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186894

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ueno, Yuji, Kenichiro Hira, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Chikage Kijima, Toshiki Inaba, and Nobutaka Hattori. 2020. "Pleiotropic Effects of Exosomes as a Therapy for Stroke Recovery" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 18: 6894. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186894

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