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Article

DNA Methylation Is Correlated with Gene Expression during Diapause Termination of Early Embryonic Development in the Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

by 1,2,†, 1,3,†, 1,3, 1,3, 1,3, 1,3, 1,3, 2, 1,3, 1,3,* and 1,3,*
1
School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui, China
2
Institute of Sericulture, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hefei 230061, Anhui, China
3
Anhui International Joint Research and Developmental Center of Sericulture Resources Utilization, Hefei 230036, Anhui, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 671; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020671
Received: 2 November 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2020 / Accepted: 16 January 2020 / Published: 20 January 2020
DNA modification is a naturally occurring DNA modification in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and is involved in several biological processes. Although genome-wide methylation has been studied in many insects, the understanding of global and genomic DNA methylation during insect early embryonic development, is lacking especially for insect diapause. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between DNA methylomes and transcriptomes in diapause-destined eggs compared to diapause-terminated eggs in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (B. mori). The results revealed that methylation was sparse in this species, as previously reported. Moreover, methylation levels in diapause-terminated eggs (HCl-treated) were 0.05% higher than in non-treated eggs, mainly due to the contribution of CG methylation sites. Methylation tends to occur in the coding sequences and promoter regions, especially at transcription initiation sites and short interspersed elements. Additionally, 364 methylome- and transcriptome-associated genes were identified, which showed significant differences in methylation and expression levels in diapause-destined eggs when compared with diapause-terminated eggs, and 74% of methylome and transcriptome associated genes showed both hypermethylation and elevated expression. Most importantly, Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses showed that methylation may be positively associated with Bombyx mori embryonic development, by regulating cell differentiation, metabolism, apoptosis pathways and phosphorylation. Through analyzing the G2/M phase-specific E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (G2E3), we speculate that methylation may affect embryo diapause by regulating the cell cycle in Bombyx mori. These findings will help unravel potential linkages between DNA methylation and gene expression during early insect embryonic development and insect diapause. View Full-Text
Keywords: DNA methylation; whole-genome sequencing; RNA-seq; embryonic development; diapause; Bombyx mori DNA methylation; whole-genome sequencing; RNA-seq; embryonic development; diapause; Bombyx mori
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, B.; Hu, P.; Zhu, L.-B.; You, L.-L.; Cao, H.-H.; Wang, J.; Zhang, S.-Z.; Liu, M.-H.; Toufeeq, S.; Huang, S.-J.; Xu, J.-P. DNA Methylation Is Correlated with Gene Expression during Diapause Termination of Early Embryonic Development in the Silkworm (Bombyx mori). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 671. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020671

AMA Style

Li B, Hu P, Zhu L-B, You L-L, Cao H-H, Wang J, Zhang S-Z, Liu M-H, Toufeeq S, Huang S-J, Xu J-P. DNA Methylation Is Correlated with Gene Expression during Diapause Termination of Early Embryonic Development in the Silkworm (Bombyx mori). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(2):671. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020671

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Bing, Pei Hu, Lin-Bao Zhu, Ling-Ling You, Hui-Hua Cao, Jie Wang, Shang-Zhi Zhang, Ming-Hui Liu, Shahzad Toufeeq, Shou-Jun Huang, and Jia-Ping Xu. 2020. "DNA Methylation Is Correlated with Gene Expression during Diapause Termination of Early Embryonic Development in the Silkworm (Bombyx mori)" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 2: 671. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21020671

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