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Review

Hijacking of Lipid Droplets by Hepatitis C, Dengue and Zika Viruses—From Viral Protein Moonlighting to Extracellular Release

1
Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Institute for Infection & Immunity, Department of Experimental Immunology, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, 3559–2350 Health Sciences Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 7901; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21217901
Received: 13 September 2020 / Revised: 15 October 2020 / Accepted: 20 October 2020 / Published: 24 October 2020
Hijacking and manipulation of host cell biosynthetic pathways by human enveloped viruses are essential for the viral lifecycle. Flaviviridae members, including hepatitis C, dengue and Zika viruses, extensively manipulate host lipid metabolism, underlining the importance of lipid droplets (LDs) in viral infection. LDs are dynamic cytoplasmic organelles that can act as sequestration platforms for a unique subset of host and viral proteins. Transient recruitment and mobilization of proteins to LDs during viral infection impacts host-cell biological properties, LD functionality and canonical protein functions. Notably, recent studies identified LDs in the nucleus and also identified that LDs are transported extracellularly via an autophagy-mediated mechanism, indicating a novel role for autophagy in Flaviviridae infections. These developments underline an unsuspected diversity and localization of LDs and potential moonlighting functions of LD-associated proteins during infection. This review summarizes recent breakthroughs concerning the LD hijacking activities of hepatitis C, dengue and Zika viruses and potential roles of cytoplasmic, nuclear and extracellular LD-associated viral proteins during infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipid droplets; SREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein) pathway; autophagy; hepatitis C virus; dengue virus; Zika virus lipid droplets; SREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein) pathway; autophagy; hepatitis C virus; dengue virus; Zika virus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cloherty, A.P.M.; Olmstead, A.D.; Ribeiro, C.M.S.; Jean, F. Hijacking of Lipid Droplets by Hepatitis C, Dengue and Zika Viruses—From Viral Protein Moonlighting to Extracellular Release. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 7901. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21217901

AMA Style

Cloherty APM, Olmstead AD, Ribeiro CMS, Jean F. Hijacking of Lipid Droplets by Hepatitis C, Dengue and Zika Viruses—From Viral Protein Moonlighting to Extracellular Release. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(21):7901. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21217901

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cloherty, Alexandra P.M., Andrea D. Olmstead, Carla M.S. Ribeiro, and François Jean. 2020. "Hijacking of Lipid Droplets by Hepatitis C, Dengue and Zika Viruses—From Viral Protein Moonlighting to Extracellular Release" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 21: 7901. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21217901

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