Next Article in Journal
Glycine Receptor Inhibition Differentially Affect Selected Neuronal Populations of the Developing Embryonic Cortex, as Evidenced by the Analysis of Spontaneous Calcium Oscillations
Next Article in Special Issue
Needle in a Haystack: The Naïve Repertoire as a Source of T Cell Receptors for Adoptive Therapy with Engineered T Cells
Previous Article in Journal
The Loss of HLA-F/KIR3DS1 Ligation Is Mediated by Hemoglobin Peptides
Previous Article in Special Issue
Relationship of 2D Affinity to T Cell Functional Outcomes
Review

CD4 T Helper Cell Subsets and Related Human Immunological Disorders

Molecular and Cellular Immunoregulation Section, Laboratory of Immune System Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8011; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21218011
Received: 11 September 2020 / Revised: 24 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 28 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in T Cell Immunity)
The immune system plays a critical role in protecting hosts from the invasion of organisms. CD4 T cells, as a key component of the immune system, are central in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. After decades of investigation, five major CD4 T helper cell (Th) subsets have been identified: Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg (T regulatory), and Tfh (follicular T helper) cells. Th1 cells, defined by the expression of lineage cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ and the master transcription factor T-bet, participate in type 1 immune responses to intracellular pathogens such as mycobacterial species and viruses; Th2 cells, defined by the expression of lineage cytokines interleukin (IL)-4/IL-5/IL-13 and the master transcription factor GAΤA3, participate in type 2 immune responses to larger extracellular pathogens such as helminths; Th17 cells, defined by the expression of lineage cytokines IL-17/IL-22 and the master transcription factor RORγt, participate in type 3 immune responses to extracellular pathogens including some bacteria and fungi; Tfh cells, by producing IL-21 and expressing Bcl6, help B cells produce corresponding antibodies; whereas Foxp3-expressing Treg cells, unlike Th1/Th2/Th17/Tfh exerting their effector functions, regulate immune responses to maintain immune cell homeostasis and prevent immunopathology. Interestingly, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been found to mimic the functions of three major effector CD4 T helper subsets (Th1, Th2, and Th17) and thus can also be divided into three major subsets: ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s. In this review, we will discuss the differentiation and functions of each CD4 T helper cell subset in the context of ILCs and human diseases associated with the dysregulation of these lymphocyte subsets particularly caused by monogenic mutations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Th1; Th2; Th17; Treg; Tfh; ILCs; pathogens; immunological diseases Th1; Th2; Th17; Treg; Tfh; ILCs; pathogens; immunological diseases
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, X.; Zhu, J. CD4 T Helper Cell Subsets and Related Human Immunological Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 8011. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21218011

AMA Style

Zhu X, Zhu J. CD4 T Helper Cell Subsets and Related Human Immunological Disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(21):8011. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21218011

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Xiaoliang, and Jinfang Zhu. 2020. "CD4 T Helper Cell Subsets and Related Human Immunological Disorders" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 21: 8011. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21218011

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop