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Review

The Immune Endocannabinoid System of the Tumor Microenvironment

1
Division of Pharmacology, Otto Loewi Research Center, Medical University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 4, 8010 Graz, Austria
2
BioTechMed, 8010 Graz, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 8929; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21238929
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 16 November 2020 / Accepted: 23 November 2020 / Published: 25 November 2020
Leukocytes are part of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and are critical determinants of tumor progression. Because of the immunoregulatory properties of cannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) may have an important role in shaping the TME. Members of the ECS, an entity that consists of cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids and their synthesizing/degrading enzymes, have been associated with both tumor growth and rejection. Immune cells express cannabinoid receptors and produce endocannabinoids, thereby forming an “immune endocannabinoid system”. Although in vitro effects of exogenous cannabinoids on immune cells are well described, the role of the ECS in the TME, and hence in tumor development and immunotherapy, is still elusive. This review/opinion discusses the possibility that the “immune endocannabinoid system” can fundamentally influence tumor progression. The widespread influence of cannabinoids on immune cell functions makes the members of the ECS an interesting target that could support immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: tumor microenvironment; endocannabinoid system; cannabinoid receptors; immune cells tumor microenvironment; endocannabinoid system; cannabinoid receptors; immune cells
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kienzl, M.; Kargl, J.; Schicho, R. The Immune Endocannabinoid System of the Tumor Microenvironment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 8929. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21238929

AMA Style

Kienzl M, Kargl J, Schicho R. The Immune Endocannabinoid System of the Tumor Microenvironment. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23):8929. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21238929

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kienzl, Melanie, Julia Kargl, and Rudolf Schicho. 2020. "The Immune Endocannabinoid System of the Tumor Microenvironment" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 23: 8929. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21238929

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