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Review

Policing Cancer: Vitamin D Arrests the Cell Cycle

by 1 and 1,2,*
1
Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0083, Gauteng, South Africa
2
National Health Laboratory Service, Tshwane Academic Division, Pretoria 0083, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9296; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21239296
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 23 November 2020 / Accepted: 26 November 2020 / Published: 6 December 2020
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone crucial for bone mineral metabolism. In addition, vitamin D has pleiotropic actions in the body, including anti-cancer actions. These anti-cancer properties observed within in vitro studies frequently report the reduction of cell proliferation by interruption of the cell cycle by the direct alteration of cell cycle regulators which induce cell cycle arrest. The most recurrent reported mode of cell cycle arrest by vitamin D is at the G1/G0 phase of the cell cycle. This arrest is mediated by p21 and p27 upregulation, which results in suppression of cyclin D and E activity which leads to G1/G0 arrest. In addition, vitamin D treatments within in vitro cell lines have observed a reduced C-MYC expression and increased retinoblastoma protein levels that also result in G1/G0 arrest. In contrast, G2/M arrest is reported rarely within in vitro studies, and the mechanisms of this arrest are poorly described. Although the relationship of epigenetics on vitamin D metabolism is acknowledged, studies exploring a direct relationship to cell cycle perturbation is limited. In this review, we examine in vitro evidence of vitamin D and vitamin D metabolites directly influencing cell cycle regulators and inducing cell cycle arrest in cancer cell lines. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell proliferation; cell cycle; cyclin-dependent kinase; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; vitamin D; calcitriol; anti-proliferation; cancer cell proliferation; cell cycle; cyclin-dependent kinase; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; vitamin D; calcitriol; anti-proliferation; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bhoora, S.; Punchoo, R. Policing Cancer: Vitamin D Arrests the Cell Cycle. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9296. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21239296

AMA Style

Bhoora S, Punchoo R. Policing Cancer: Vitamin D Arrests the Cell Cycle. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23):9296. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21239296

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bhoora, Sachin, and Rivak Punchoo. 2020. "Policing Cancer: Vitamin D Arrests the Cell Cycle" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 23: 9296. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21239296

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